State any four characteristics of a homologous series
State two characteristics of a homologous series.
Characteristics of a homologous series:
- Each member of the series differs from the preceding one by the addition of a -CH2 group and by 14 a.m.u.
- All members of a homologous series share the general formula.
Example: The general formula for alkane is CnH2n+2 and alkene is CnH2n.
- The physical properties of the members show a gradation in properties as the molecular mass increases.
- The chemical properties also show a gradient similarity.
Example: Methane and ethane react with chlorine to form methyl chloride and ethyl chloride, respectively.
CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl
C2H6 + Cl2 → C2H5Cl
- All members of a homologous series can be prepared by the same general method of preparation.
Example: Alcohols can be prepared from alkyl halides.
`CH_3Br+KOH " Boil"/""CH_3OH+KBr`
`C_2H_5Br+KOH " Boil"/""C_2H_5OH+KBr`
Concept: Homologous Series of Carbon Compound
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