Derive the expression for the magnetic field due to a solenoid of length ‘2l’, radius ‘a’ having ’n’ number of turns per unit length and carrying a steady current ‘I’ at a point
on the axial line, distance ‘r’ from the centre of the solenoid. How does this expression compare with the axial magnetic field due to a bar magnet of magnetic moment ‘m’?
Consider a solenoid of length 2l, radius a and having n turns per unit length. It is carrying a current I.
We have to evaluate the axial field at a point P at a distance r from the centre of the solenoid
Consider a circular element of thickness dx of the solenoid at a distance x from its centre.
The magnitude of the field due to this circular loop carrying a current I is given as
The magnitude of the total field is obtained by integrating over all the elements from x = −l to x = +l.
Consider the far axial field of the solenoid, so r ≫a and r≫l. Hence, we have
[(r-x)2+a2]3/2 ≈ r3
So, we get
The magnitude of the magnetic moment of the solenoid is
m Total number of turns current cross-sectional area
Therefore, we get the magnetic field as
This is the expression for magnetic field due to a solenoid on the axial line at a distance r from the centre.
This magnetic field is also the field due to a bar magnet of magnetic moment m.
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