Solution - Soaps and Detergents



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Differentiate between Toilet soap and Laundry soap.


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 People use a variety of methods to wash clothes. Usually after adding the soap, they ‘beat’ the clothes on a stone, or beat it with a paddle, scrub with a brush or the mixture is agitated in a washing machine. Why is agitation necessary to get clean clothes?

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Both soap and detergent are some type of salts. What is the difference between them?

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A student takes about 4 ml of distilled water in four test tubes marked P, Q, R and S. He then dissolves in each test tube an equal amount of one salt in one test tube, namely sodium sulphate in P, potassium sulphate in Q, calcium sulphate in R and magnesium sulphate in S. After that he adds an equal amount of soap solution in each test tube. On shaking each of these test tubes well, he observes a good amount of lather (foam) in the test tube marked

(A) P and Q

(B) Q and R

(C) P, Q and S

(D) P, R and S

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In a locality, hard water, required for an experiment, is not available. However, the following salts are available in the school laboratory:

1. Sodium sulphate

2. Calcium sulphate

3. Magnesium chloride

4. Sodium chloride

5. Calcium chloride

6. Potassium sulphate

Which of the above salts may be dissolved in water to obtain hard water for the experiment?

(A) 2, 3 and 5

(B) 1, 2 and 5

(C) 1, 2, 4 and 6

(D) 3 and 5 only

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In the neighbourhood of your school, hard water required for an experiment is not available. Select from the following group of salts available in your school, a group each member of which, if dissolved in distilled water, will make it hard:

(a) Sodium chloride, calcium chloride

(b) Potassium chloride, sodium chloride

(c) Sodium chloride, magnesium chloride

(d) Calcium chloride, magnesium chloride

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