Sketch and Label ‘L.S. of Human Kidney’ - Biology


Sketch and label ‘L.S. of human kidney’



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2015-2016 (March)


Sketch and label 'structure of nephron'.

Protein-free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman’s capsule.

Henle’s loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine.

Glucose is actively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.

Name the following: 

A chordate animal having flame cells as excretory structures

Name the following: 

Cortical portions projecting between the medullary pyramids in the human kidney.

Name the following: 

A loop of capillary running parallel to the Henle’s loop

Ascending limb of Henle’s loop is ______ to water, whereas the descending limb is ______to it.

Give significance of podocyte

Put a tick mark (✓) against the most appropriate alternative in the following statement :  

The kidneys are made up of tiny tubular units called :

Describe the structure of the kidney with the help of a labelled diagram. 

Tick the most appropriate answer. 

A network of capillaries present in the Bowman’s capsule is called 

Tick the most appropriate answer. 

The Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus together form the

Tick the most appropriate answer.  

Transpiration is affected by

Find the odd one out. Give a reason for your choice.

skin, heart, lung, liver, kidney  

Answer the following in short.

What are the main organs involved in the human excretory system? 

Answer the following in short.

What is urethra? 

Answer the following in detail.

Draw a labelled diagram of the urinary system in human beings and describe each part. 

One of Harry’s organs is not functioning properly. There is extra fluid build up in his body causing swelling in his ankles and feet. 

What should Harry do? Tick the correct answer.

Which of Harry’s organs is not working properly? 

Why is excretion necessary? Name the common excretory substance in our body. 

What is a uriniferous tubule? How does it function? 

Draw and label the diagram.


Draw and label the diagram.

Human excretory system

Choose the correct answer:
Physiologically urea is produced by the action of an enzyme ______________

Draw a neat and well labeled diagram of human excretory system. 

With the help of a labelled diagram describe human excretory system.
How will you identify acute kidney injury by urine analysis? 

Why excretion is necessary?

Explain the Term: Loop of Henle

Give Technical Terms: 
The pigments produced by the breakdown of haemoglobin in liver.

What are some common excretory product?

Give Technical Terms
Which vessel will have the highest concentration of urea long after a meal ?

Write the functional activity of the following structure: Urethra

Choose the correct option.

Person suffering from kidney stone is advised not to have tomatoes as it has _______.

Choose the correct option.

Which one of the following is not a part of human kidney?

Choose the correct option.

The yellow colour of the urine is due to presence of ________.

Choose the correct option.

In reptiles, uric acid is stored in ______.

Choose the correct option.

Bowman’s capsule is located in kidney in the _______.

Choose the correct option.

The snakes living in desert are mainly ______.

Choose the correct option.

Urea is a product of breakdown of ______.

Choose the correct option.

Volume of the urine is regulated by ______.

Answer the following question.

Why are kidneys called 'retroperitoneal'?

Complete the diagram/chart with correct labels/ information. Write the conceptual details regarding it.

How many kidneys do we have?

The functional unit of kidney is ______.

Arrange the excretory system in the correct sequence.

(Urinary bladder, Ureter, Kidney, Urethra).

Circle the odd one.

Circle the odd one.

The process by which the body removes waste is ______.

Which one of the following substance is not a constituent of sweat?

Differentiate the following.

Excretion and Secretion

Name the three filtration barriers that solutes must come across as they move from plasma to the lumen of Bowman’s capsule. What components of the blood are usually excluded by these layers?

Identify the wrong match

Podocytes are the cells present on the ______.

Malpighian tubules remove excretory products from ______.

Identify the biological term

Removal of unwanted substances from the body.

Differentiate protonephridia from metanephridia.

Differentiate cortical from medullary nephrons.

The point where the ureter arises from the kidney to where it opens into the urinary bladder is about ____________ cm.

If a person's urine report shows the presence of proteins, it indicates ______.

Identify the CORRECT statement with reference to nephron.

The Malpighian corpuscle lies in the______ of the kidney.

Maximum amount of urea is present in the blood carried by the ____________.

Urethra is a passage from which urine is ____________.

Na+ and Cl ions move from ____________ to the tissue fluid.

Select the INCORRECT match.

Name the tube which connects the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Where is the dirty blood in our body filtered?

Which of the following statements is not correct?

The filtration units of kidneys are called ____________.

Which among the following procedures is used for cleaning the blood of a person by separating the waste substance from it?

The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from ______.

______ is sac–like in shape.

Kidneys receive approximately ______ liters of blood.

The kidneys are made up of millions of excretory units called ______.

The functional units of the kidney are called ______.

______ gland is located above the kidney.

Our body contains about ______ water.

The nitrogenous wastes are removed from the body by the endocrine system.


Neurons: Nervous system.
Nephrons: ______.

The filtration units of kidneys are called

Choose the correct path of urine in our body

Describe the process of urine formation in kidneys.

Which are the two main organic wastes present in urine?

The muscular tube through which stored urine is passed out of the body is called 

Arrange the following statements in the correct order in which they occur during the formation and removal of urine in human beings.

(a) Ureters carry urine to the urinary bladder.

(b) Wastes dissolved in water are filtered out as urine in the kidneys.

(c) Urine stored in the urinary bladder is passed out through the urinary opening at the end of the urethra.

(d) Blood containing useful and harmful substances reaches the kidneys for filtration.

(e) Useful substances are absorbed back into the blood.

Name the process and the organ which helps in removing the following wastes from the body.

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Undigested food
  3. Urine
  4. Sweat

Read the following terms given below.

root hairs  xylem  urethra  arteries  kidneys  veins  atria capillaries  heart  ureter  phloem  urinary bladder

Group the terms on the basis of the categories given below.

(a) The circulatory system of animals.

(b) Excretory system in humans.

(c) Transport of substances in plants.

Organs that are concerned with the formation, storage, and elimination of urine constitute the ______.

In the process of urine formation, the maximum amount of water from the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in the ______.

The narrower lower part of the uterus is  ______.

The bunch of capillaries inside the Bowman’s capsule.

Thin muscular tubes carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. 

What is the contribution of Joseph E. Murray to Nephrology?

Select the substances given below that need to be excreted from the body, (urea, amino acids, carbon dioxide, uric acid, glucose)

Rearrange the jumbled words and fill in the blanks in the following passage to make it a meaningful description.

The human urinary system consists of a pair of ______ ( nyedik), which form the urine; a pair of ______ (ertreu), which conduct the ______ (neuri) from kidneys to the ______ (naryuri drebdal) for storage of urine and a ______ (reuhrat) through which the urine is voided by bladder contractions.

Which one of the following statements is INCORRECT? 

Structural unit of kidneys are ______.

Kidneys are reddish brown and

Erythropoietin hormone which stimulates R.B.C. formation is produced by ______.

Which one of the following statements is incorrect?

We can produce a concentrated/ dilute urine. This is facilitated by a special mechanism. Identify the mechanism.

The following abbreviations are used in the context of excretory functions, what do they stand for?


The maximum amount of electrolytes and water (70-80%) from the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in which part of the nephron.

The inner visceral layer of glomerular capsule composed of specialised cells called ______.

Write one specific function each of the following organs in relation with excretion in human beings: 

  1. Renal Artery
  2. Urethra
  3. Glomerulus
  4. Tubular part of nephron

Explain the role of kidney in hormone secretion.

Kidneys are vital organs for survival. Several factors like infections, injury or restricted blood flow to kidneys reduce the activity of kidneys. This leads to the accumulation of poisonous wastes in the body, which can even lead to death. In case of kidney failure, an artificial kidney can be used. An artificial kidney is a device to remove waste products from the blood through dialysis.

i. a. Name the artery that brings oxygenated blood to the kidney.

b. Name the cluster of the thin-walled blood capillaries present in the Bowman's capsule.

ii. In the human excretory system, name the organ which stores urine. Is this organ under hormonal control or nervous control?

iii. List two major steps involved in the formation of urine and state in brief their functions.


iii. In which part of the nephron does selective reabsorption take place? List the factors which the amount of water reabsorbed depends on.


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