How does fertilisation occur in flowers? Name the parts of the flower that develop into (i) seed, and (ii) fruit after fertilisation.
Fertilization in plants: In plants, pollination is followed by fertilization. Once the pollen grains are deposited on the stigma, they form tubes called pollen tubes. The pollen tubes grow through the ovules and reach the ovary where ovules are located. The pollen tube normally enters the ovule through a small opening called micropyle. Inside the ovule, the pollen tube releases two male gametes into the embryo sac.
The embryo sac of the ovule contains the egg. One male gamete fuses with the egg. This fusion of male and female gamete is called syngamy and its product is called zygote. The other male gamete fuse with two polar bodies and this process is called triple fusion, where three nuclei are involved in the fusion process, one male gamete and two polar nuclei. Thus, inside each embryo sac, two fusions, syngamy and triple fusion, takes place. This mechanism of two fusions occurring in an embryo sac is called double-fertilization.
After fertilization, ovules develop into the seeds and ovary develops into the fruit.
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- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants