Responsibility for Payment of Wages is Covered Under Section ____ of Payment of Wages Act - Legal Reasoning

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Responsibility for Payment of wages is covered under section ____ of Payment of Wages Act

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Solution

3

Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)
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Direction : The passage given below is followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

In India the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is the apex food regulator. It is empowered by and functions under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI implements and enforces food regulations as prescribed in the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act). The FSS Act is an Act of Parliament, popularly known as the Food Act. Previous to the FSS Act there were a number of food legislations. All these have been consolidated into a homogenous whole in the FSS Act. The regulations of the FSS Act became effective in 2011 with FSSAI as its regulatory body. Though the Act continues to evolve it needs to be further harmonized with standards of international agencies for global parity.

New Draft Regulations have been formulated by FSSAI. Of special interest is Section 22 of the FSS Act, which deals with "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, Novel Foods and Health Supplements." For the first time regulations have been proposed for this category of foods. If these products propound nutritional or medicinal benefits they need to have sound scientific evidence. The products must not contain either steroids or psychotropic drugs. Ingredients like vitamins and minerals must conform to the recommended dietary allowances for Indians, as proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Organic and Traditional foods also do not require product approval as they are being consumed for centuries in India. The ingredients and preparation methods are well known and this guarantees their safety. If, however, traditional and organic foods use any new ingredients or food additive or new technologies in preparation, they need product approval.

Foods Imported into India have to follow the FSS Act, Rules & Regulations If the food articles are standardized, the importer only needs an FSSAI license to import them. The importer also needs to comply with FSSAI regulations for sale and distribution of the food products.

The existing process of product approval for the food articles governed under Section 22 of the FSS Act has been discontinued as updated on August 26, 2015 by FSSAI in response to the ruling by Honorable Supreme Court of India. The regulations on such food products are expected soon and the product approval may be reintroduced through a regulation.

These are exciting times for food safety regulations in India. The recent proposals mentioned in the new Draft Regulations will soon be finalized to become the new Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2015. They will provide new directives in areas such as nutraceuticals and health supplements, which is the need of the hour as these are becoming popular food categories. Standardization for thousands of foods is on the anvil. Food business operators are certainly anticipating some positive changes in food regulations, which could ease product approval process and food operations.

A harmonization of Indian food standards with global standards is a step in the right direction.

Which one of the following is the most important implication of the above passage?


Direction: The passage given below is followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

In India the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is the apex food regulator. It is empowered by and functions under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI implements and enforces food regulations as prescribed in the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act). The FSS Act is an Act of Parliament, popularly known as the Food Act. Previous to the FSS Act there were a number of food legislations. All these have been consolidated into a homogenous whole in the FSS Act. The regulations of the FSS Act became effective in 2011 with FSSAI as its regulatory body. Though the Act continues to evolve it needs to be further harmonized with standards of international agencies for global parity.

New Draft Regulations have been formulated by FSSAI. Of special interest is Section 22 of the FSS Act, which deals with "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, Novel Foods and Health Supplements." For the first time regulations have been proposed for this category of foods. If these products propound nutritional or medicinal benefits they need to have sound scientific evidence. The products must not contain either steroids or psychotropic drugs. Ingredients like vitamins and minerals must conform to the recommended dietary allowances for Indians, as proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Organic and Traditional foods also do not require product approval as they are being consumed for centuries in India. The ingredients and preparation methods are well known and this guarantees their safety. If, however, traditional and organic foods use any new ingredients or food additive or new technologies in preparation, they need product approval.

Foods Imported into India have to follow the FSS Act, Rules & Regulations If the food articles are standardized, the importer only needs an FSSAI license to import them. The importer also needs to comply with FSSAI regulations for sale and distribution of the food products.

The existing process of product approval for the food articles governed under Section 22 of the FSS Act has been discontinued as updated on August 26, 2015 by FSSAI in response to the ruling by Honorable Supreme Court of India. The regulations on such food products are expected soon and the product approval may be reintroduced through a regulation.

These are exciting times for food safety regulations in India. The recent proposals mentioned in the new Draft Regulations will soon be finalized to become the new Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2015. They will provide new directives in areas such as nutraceuticals and health supplements, which is the need of the hour as these are becoming popular food categories. Standardization for thousands of foods is on the anvil. Food business operators are certainly anticipating some positive changes in food regulations, which could ease product approval process and food operations.

A harmonization of Indian food standards with global standards is a step in the right direction.

Axon a food marketing corporate giant specialized in traditional and organic products. It has captured 73% of the share in this sector across the globe. Recently in the Axon Lab a research breakthrough occurred by mixing traditional food with a newly discovered molecular formula. The new product has become a new attraction amongst the athletes due to its energy enhancement outcomes.
According to the passage does Axon has to apply for approval?


Principle: When, at the desire one person, any other person has done or abstained from doing something, such act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise.

Facts:  X, the uncle of Y, made a promise to pay him an amount of Rs. 1,00,000/- as a reward if Y quits smoking and drinking within one year. Y quit smoking and drinking within six months. 


The question consists of two statements, one labelled as a principle and other as Fact. You are to exa.mine the principle and apply it to the given facts carefully and select the best option.

PRINCIPAL: ignorantia juris nonexcusat and ingnorantia facit excusat

FACT: George was a passenger from Zurich to Manila in a Swiss Plane. When the plane landed at the airport at Etombay on 28th Nov. 1962 it was found on search that George carried 34 kgs of gold bars in person and that he had not declared it in the 'Manifest for transfer. On 28th Nov. 1962 Govemment of India issued a notification and modified its earlier exemption and now it is necessary that the gold must be declared in the "Manifest" of the aircraft.


Read the definition and elements of the attempt, apply them on the given fact situations and answer the question:

Definition of Attempt: Lord Blackburn has said that "there is no doubt that there is difference between a preparation antecedent to an attempt and the actual attempt, but if the actual transaction has commenced which would have ended in the crime if not interrupted, there is clearly an attempt to commit the crime."

1. Fault element· Intention or knowledge requisite for committing an offense: and
2. Conduct Element: does any act towards its commission and has crossed the stage of preparation. This act is so closely connected with and proximate to the commission that it falls in object because of facts not known to him or because of circumstances beyond his control.

'RANI' ran to a well stating that she would jump into it. and she started running towards the well but she was caught before she could reach it.


What is a moot'?


Principle: Defamation is the publication of a statement that tends to lower reputation of a person in the estimation of other members of the society generally.

Facts: 'A' writes a highly offensive and derogatory letter about 'B', and sends it directly to 'B' in a sealed cover.


Choose the most appropriate option:

'lis pendens' means-


This question consists of principles and facts. The principal may or may not be true in the real and legal sense, yet you have to conclusively assume them to be true for the purposes of this Section. In other words, in answering the question, you must not rely on any principle except the principle that is given hereinbelow for the question.  
Further, you must not assume any facts other than those stated in the question. The objective of this section is to test your interest in the study of law, research aptitude, and problem-solving ability. 
Therefore, to answer a question, the principle is to be applied to the given facts and to choose the most appropriate option.

Principle: Under the Employees Compensation Act, 1923, an employer is liable to pay compensation to his workmen for injuries sustained by them by an accident arising out of and in the course of employment.

Facts: M, the Manager of SRK Industries asked his secretary S to submit a report at the Government Labour Office. ‘S’ submitted the report as directed. On his way back S met one of his classmates. He then decided to have a cup of tea together at a wayside restaurant. Sometime later, ‘S’ got a message from his office to report back as it was a long time since he left the office. ‘S’ rushed back on his Motor Cycle. On his way back a Truck that was coming from a side road hit ‘S’. H e was admitted to a nearby hospital with multiple injuries. He claims compensation under the Employees Compensation Act from his employer.


Legal phrase is followed by four meanings. Choose the most appropriate option:

Caveat venditor


Mark the best option:
The right of a party to initiate an action and be heard before a Court of law is called


Mark the best option:
Joint heirs to a property are called -


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Berne Convention was first established in


Indian Design Act enacted in


Trade Marks Act in India enacted in


The Copyright Act, 1957 came into effect from


The payment of wages Act is applicable to _________


Time Of Payment Of Wages is covered under section ____ of Payment of Wages Act


The following question consists of two statements, one labelled as. 'Assertion' and the other as 'Reason'. Read both the statements carefully and answer using the codes given below.

Assertion (A): International law is not law at all.

Reason (R): International law has no judicial system to enforce the law by applying sanctions.


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