Read the following passage and do the activities.
In the early days of farming, people did not understand how plants obtained essential nutrients. It so happened that wood ash, fish remains and slaughterhouse waste were thrown on vacant land just to get rid of them. Then, people started to notice that the grass, bushes and shrubs on this vacant land began to grow very well. They reasoned that if their farmland were similarly treated, the growth of their crops would also improve. People gradually began to realize that the nutrients required by plants came from the soil and that the amount of nutrients could be increased by the application of such organic remains to the soil. Thus started the manuring process in farming.
The practice of manuring has been practised as early since the seventeenth century. However, the importance of manuring was not properly understood until scientists began to study the nutritional needs of plants and gave birth to fertilizers. Thus, gradually, the use of fertilizers became accepted by farmers.
There are many types of manure and fertilizer currently being used. Manure is a substance derived from animals and plants. The most important advantage of using manure is the fact that they not only supply a wide range of plant
nutrients, but also improve the structure of the soil. It cements together the soil particles to form soil crumbs. The crumb structure is a desirable condition of cultivated soil. The addition of manure to soil will increase the inorganic and humus content which helps to prevent soil erosion and loss of plant nutrients when it rains. The common manure used in farming consists of farmyard manure, compost, blood meal, bone meal and fish meal.
Unlike manure, fertilizers are inorganic substances which do not improve the structure of the soil. They only supply extra amounts of nutrients to the growing plants when applied to the soil. The commercial fertilizers commonly used today
can be classified into three major categories; namely, nitrogen (N), phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Besides knowing the type of fertilizer to use, a farmer also needs to know when to apply the fertilizer and how to apply it. The fertilizer should be applied at the time when the plants need a particular nutrient most. The time and method
of application will determine how profitably the fertilizers have been used in farming. Fertilizers which have not been properly applied cannot be absorbed in large quantities by plant roots. These fertilizers may be washed away by rain
or they may kill the plants. This would mean a definite financial loss for the farmer.
(A1) Choose the correct option and rewrite the sentences.
(a) What did the people not understand in the early days of farming ? (1/2)
(i) how farming is done
(ii) how plants obtained essential nutrients
(iii) how grass, shrubs and bushes grow.
(b) What is manure ? (1/2)
(i) a substance derived from animals and plants.
(ii) the soil particles to form soil crumbs.
(iii) a combination of nitrogen, phosphate and potash.
(c) When should fertilizers be applied ? (1/2)
(i) When the plants get dried.
(ii) When the plants need a particular nutrient most.
(iii) In the early days of farming.
(d) What determines the profitability of the fertilizers ? (1/2)
(i) grass, bushes and shrubs
(ii) nitrogen, phosphate and potash.
(iii) The time and method of application.
(A2) How did the process of adding manure to the soil begin? (2)
(A3) Find out similar words from the passage. (2)
(i) necessary (ii) comprise
(iii) step by step (iv) ascertain
(i) They supply extra amount of nutrients to the growing plants (Begin the sentence with ‘Extra amount of.......... ’.)(1)
(ii) It cements together the soil particles to form soil crumbs.
(Choose the correct option to name the tense.)(1)
(i) Simple present tense
(ii) Simple past tense
(iii) Simple future tense
(A5) ‘Agriculture plays important role in Indian economy’. Explain. (2)
(B) Read the passage given in Q. 4 (A) and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary. (5)
(a) how plants obtained essential nutrients . ½
(b) a substance derived from animals and plants. ½
(c) when the plants need a particular nutrient most. ½
(d) The time and method of application. ½
(½ mark for each correct option.)
People used to throw wood ash, fish remains and slaughterhouse waste on the vacant land just to get rid of them. When the people noticed that the grass, bushes
and shrubs on that spot began to grow very well, they realised the growth of their crops would also be improved. They also realised that the quality of land would be improved by supplying organic remains to the soil. Thus they began adding manures to the soil in their land. (2)
(½ mark for each correct point.)
(½ mark for each correct word.) (2)
(i) Extra amount of nutrients is supplied by them to the growing plants. (1)
(ii) Simple present tense (1)
(A5) Reasonably correct answer written in 4-5 sentences will be accepted. (2)
(B) Summary Writing
Use the following points while writing the summary –
• Read the given passage carefully and underline the important points.
• Write suitable title to your summary.
• Express the theme/gist of the passage in your own words by using the main points you underlined.
• Avoid using the exact lines from the given passage.
• Don’t express your own opinion while writing it.
• A suitable title (1)
• Central idea / theme (2)
• Use of appropriate language (2)