(A) Read the following extract and answer the questions given below :
Oil is one of the world's major sources of energy. We depend on it as fuel for heating, transport, and generation of power.
For centuries, animal and vegetable oils have been used for cooking and as a source of artificial light. But it is mineral oil which meets most of the world's needs today.
Crude mineral oil comes out of the earth as a thick brown or black liquid with a strong smell. It is a complex mixture of many different substances, each with its own individual qualities. Most of them are combinations of hydrogen and carbon in varying proportions. Such hydrocarbons are also found in other forms such as bitumen, asphalt and natural gas. Mineral oil originates from the carcasses of tiny animals and from plants that live in the sea. Over millions of years, these dead creatures form large deposits under the sea bed and ocean currents cover them with a blanket of sand and silt. As this material hardens, it becomes sedimentary rock and effectively shuts out the oxygen so preventing the complete decomposition of the marine deposits underneath. The layers of sedimentary rock become thicker and heavier. Their pressure produces heat, which transforms the tiny carcasses into crude oil in a process that is still going on today.
The earth's crust is split into a few hu·ge continental plates which move continuously rather like rafts on a sluggish tide. Geologists call this rnoven1ent as 'continental drift'.
(1) What does the extract ·tell us about?
(2) In which form does crude mineral oil come out of the earth and from what does it originate?
(3) How is 'continental drift' formed?
(4) According to you, how can we stop the excessive use of energy?
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) Oil is one of the world's major sources of energy.
(Rewrite it as a negative sentence without changing its meaning.)
(ii) As this material hardens, it becomes sedimentary rock.
(Make it a compound sentence.)
(iii) Geologists call this movement 'con·tinental drift'.
(Frame a 'Wh-question' to get the underlined part as an answer.)
(6) Give the antonyms from the extract for :
(B) Write·a brief summary of the above extract with the help of the points given below and suggest a suitable title.
Oil as a source of energy - our dependence - types of oil -mineral oil origin of crude oil formation of crude oil-farming of sedimentary rocks - continental drift
1. The extract tells us about oil one of the world's major sources of energy.
2. Crude mineral oil comes out of the earth as a thick brown or black liquid with a strong smell. It originates from the carcasses of tiny animals and from plants that live in the sea.
3. The Earth's crust splits into a few huge continental plates which move continuously rather like rafts on a sluggish tide. This movement is called Continental drift.
4. We can stop the excessive use of energy:
(a) By walking to short distances with our feet instead of using transport.
(b) We should use public transport or carpooling instead of using our private individual transport.
(c) We should turn off the engine of a vehicle on traffic signals while waiting for the green light.
5. (i) None other than the oils is the world's major source of energy.
(ii) It becomes sedimentary rock when this material hardens.
(iii) What do geologists call this movement as?
6. (i) Natural.
Title: Formation of Mineral oil
Oil is one of the world's major source of energy. We depend on oil as fuel for heating, transport and for the generation of power. Animal and vegetable oils have been used for cooking and for artificial light for centuries. But only mineral oil meets the world's needs today.
Thick brown or black liquid with a strong smell comes out the earth as crude mineral, Which is a complex mixture of many different substances each having its individual quality. They are mainly a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydro-carbons are also found in bitumen, asphalt and natural gas mineral oil originates from the carcasses of tiny plants and animals that live in the sea. The dead creatures form large deposits under the sea bed over millions of years and ocean current covers them with a blanket of sand and salt. As the minerals harden it becomes sedimentary rock and shuts out the oxygen, preventing the complete decomposition if mineral deposits underneath. The sedimentary layers become thicker and heavier, the pressure produces heat, transforming the tiny carcasses into crude oil,
The earth's crust splits into few huge continental plates moving continuously like rafts called "Continental drift by geologist"