Among the following pairs of orbitals which orbital will experience the larger effective nuclear charge? (i) 2s and 3s, (ii) 4d and 4f, (iii) 3d and 3p
Nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge experienced by an electron in the orbital of a multi-electron atom. The closer the orbital, the greater is the nuclear charge experienced by the electron (s) in it.
(i) The electron(s) present in the 2s orbital will experience greater nuclear charge (being closer to the nucleus) than the electron(s) in the 3s orbital.
(ii) 4d will experience greater nuclear charge than 4f since 4d is closer to the nucleus.
(iii) 3p will experience greater nuclear charge since it is closer to the nucleus than 3f.
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