Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: x2n – y2n is divisible by x + y.
Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): x2n – y2n is divisible by x + y.
It can be observed that P(n) is true for n = 1.
This is so because x2 × 1 – y2 × 1 = x2 – y2 = (x + y) (x – y) is divisible by (x + y).
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
x2k – y2k is divisible by x + y.
∴x2k – y2k = m (x + y), where m ∈ N … (1)
We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers i.e., n.
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