Write a short note on surface wave propagation of electromagnetic waves.
- When the radio waves from the transmitting antenna propagate along the surface of the Earth to reach the receiving antenna, the wave propagation is called ground wave propagation or surface wave propagation.
- Electromagnetic waves which are vertically polarised can travel in this mode.
- The horizontal component of electric field in contact with the Earth is short circuited. The radio waves induce current in the ground through which they pass.
- There is loss of power in a signal during its propagation on the surface of the Earth due to partial absorption of energy by the ground. Loss of energy is also due to the diffraction effect. The absorption of energy is high for high frequency. Hence, groundwave propagation is suitable for low frequency and medium frequency.
- It is used for local broadcasting, e.g. ship communication and radio navigation. For TV and FM signals (HF), groundwave propagation is not used.
Line of sight propagation is also called as_________________ .
- sky wave
- ground wave
- sound wave
- space wave
The reflected waves from an ionosphere are _____.
(a) ground waves
(b) sky waves
(c) space waves
(d) very high-frequency waves
The outermost layer of the earth’s atmosphere is _______.
- Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves