Principle: When a Person Falsifies Something with the Intent to Deceive Another Person Or Entity is Forgery and is a Criminal Act. - Legal Reasoning


The principle is to be applied to the given facts and to choose the most appropriate option:

Principle: When a person falsifies something with the intent to deceive another person or entity is forgery and is a criminal act. Changing or adding the signature on a document, deleting it, using or possessing false writing is also considered forgery. In the case of writing/painting to fall under the definition, the material included must have been fabricated or altered significantly in order to represent something it is actually no.

Facts: David made a living travelling from city to city, selling paintings that he claimed were done by great artists. Since the artists’ signatures were in place, many people fell for them and purchased the paintings. One of these artists saw three of his alleged paintings in a City gallery containing his name. He knew these were not his works and he complained to the police. Police traced David and initiated legal proceedings. Is David guilty of any offence?


  • There is no point in taking legal action against David as the signature has not done any alteration to the artwork.

  • David is guilty of forgery as the addition of the signature was with an intention to make people believe that those were the paintings of the great artists.

  • Those who buy the art pieces from David ought to have been careful in checking it and ensuring that they were originals before purchasing it.

  • David is not guilty of any offence as he was selling the art pieces for his living.



David is guilty of forgery as the addition of the signature was with an intention to make people believe that those were the paintings of the great artists.


According to Section 468 of the Indian Penal Code, an individual committing forgery on a document for the purpose of cheating will be held guilty.   
In this question, David sold fake paintings by forging the signatures of great artists with the purpose of cheating customers. He will be held guilty for the same.  (Dinesh Chandra vs State Of U.P. And Others on 7  March, 2011). 

Concept: Indian Penal Code (Entrance Exams)
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2016-2017 (May) Set 1


In this Question problem consists of a set of rules and facts. Apply the specified rules to the set of facts and answer the question. In answering the following question, you should not rely on any rule(s) except the rule(s) that are supplied for problem. Further, you should not assume any fact other than 'those stated in the problem. The aim is to test your ability to properly apply a rule to a given set of facts, even when the result is absurd or unacceptable for any other reason. It is not the aim to test any knowledge of law you may already possess.

A. A person is an employee of another if the mode and the manner in which he or she carries out his work is subject to control and supervision of the latter.
B. An employer is required to provide compensation to his or her employees for any injury caused by an accident arising in the course of employment. The words 'in the course of the employment' means in the course of the work which the employee is contracted to do and which is incidental to it.

Messrs. ZafarAbidi and Co. (Company) manufactures bidis with the help of persons known as `pattadars'. The pattadars are supplied tobacco and leaves by the Company and are required to roll them into bidis and bring the bidis back to the Company. The pattadars are free to roll the bidis either in the factory or anywhere else they prefer. They are not bound to attend the factory for any fixed hours of work or for any fixed number of days. Neither are they required to roll up any fixed number of bidis. The Company verifies whether the bidis adhere to the specified instructions or not and pays the pattadars on the basis of the number of bids that are found to be of right quality. Aashish Mathew is one of the pattadars of the Company. He was hit by a car just outside the precinct of the factory while he was heading to have lunch in a nearby foodstall. Aashish Mathew has applied for compensation from the Company. In case the paladars were compulsorily required to work in the factory for a minimum number of hours every day, then it would be correct to state that:

In case the paladars were compulsorily required to work in the factory for a minimum number of hours every day, then it would be correct to state that:

Direction : The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Juvenile delinquency is defined as "the habitual committing of criminal acts or offenses by a young person, especially one below the age at which ordinary criminal prosecution is possible." These acts are committed mostly by teenagers, cumulative in today's civilization, which is a very concerning matter and cannot be snubbed. The more concerning matter is that generations of youth are believed to be the future of the world. Their behavior shows how tomorrow's future will be.

Juvenile delinquency has become a major problem, and only by addressing the basics can it be tackled. Attention towards co-curricular activities should be given to mold the child in the right and engaging way. The more he is forced to obey rules at school, diktats at home, mores of the society, the more he will escape to criminal acts in order to vent out his frustration. Forcing him will only make him hate it all. Hence, the approach should be to make exercises of discipline, etiquette, and moral sense interesting. This is where cocurricular activities come into play.

Juvenile offenders have the same set of constitutional guarantees as an adult, such as a fair trial. But very often, adult offenders are able to secure bail faster than a juvenile offender. Merely because the juvenile is not punished, it can in no way take away his/her constitutional guarantees of liberty. The only difference is that, unlike adult offenders, the state must protect, and ultimately rehabilitate, juvenile offenders. But protection cannot become custody. Also, the statute stresses on privacy as a right for the juvenile offender. But in the garb of privacy, there is very little effort for scrutiny and transparency in the process. The statute focuses on necessary infrastructure with significant involvement of informal systems, specifically the family, voluntary organizations, and the community, to provide a system separate from the criminal justice system. For this to become a reality, we must build effective linkages between districts and states, among various government agencies in association with child rights groups, along with effective legal services for the children and their families. Otherwise, juvenile justice will become a poor copy of the criminal justice system, only hardening the children caught in it.

Therefore, the Juvenile Justice law should address the issues relating to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection by catering to their basic needs through proper care, protection, development, treatment, social re-integration, by adopting a child-friendly approach in the adjudication and disposal of matters in the best interest of children and for their rehabilitation through processes provided, and institutions and bodies established.

By addressing the basics issues the problem of Juvenile delinquency can be tackled…hereby basics, the author refers to

Principle: A man is guilty of not only for what he actually does but also for the consequences of his doing.

Facts: A wanted to kill the animal of B. He saw B standing with his animal and fired a gunshot at the animal. The gunshot killed B. 

Principle: A spouse is not permitted to put in evidence in any court, any communication during the marriage between the spouses without the consent of the person who made the communication.

Facts: X who is the wife of Y saw her husband (Y) coming out of the neighbour‘s house at 6.00 am in the morning. Y told his wife X that he has murdered the neighbour and handed over the jewellery of that neighbour to his wife. 

The next three questions consist of two statements, one labeled as 'Assertion' (A) and other as 'Reason' (R). You are to examine these two statements carefully and select the correct answer.

Assertion (A): The essence of joint liability under section 149 of the IPC is that the criminal act must have been done with a view to fulfill the common object of an unlawful assembly.

Reason (R): Any sudden and provocative act done by a member of an unlawful assembly would render the other members of that assembly liable.

Mark the best option:

  1. If one threatens another to commit any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code likely to harm anyone thereby causing him(one who is thus threatened) to enter into an agreement with anyone; the agreement thus entered into is void.
  2. An attempt to commit suicide is an act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code.

Facts: Gopaldas who is very fond of his nephew Jitendra, a bright law graduate; promises to gift him a plot of land if the latter joined his friend Atmaram’s law firm as an associate. Jitendra joins Atmaram’s firm but before Gopaldas could proceed, his elder son Akash who was in need of money threatened to commit suicide if Gopaldas did not sell the plot of land. Gopaldas entered into an agreement to sell the plot of land and gave the money he received as advance; to Akash.

A puts his hand in pocket B for stealing money but the pocket was empty. A is guilty of –

Any hurt is grievous if it causes the sufferer to be in severe bodily pain or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits during space of –

Under the Indian Penal Code, abetment is constituted :

Abetting the commission of suicide is dealt under :

Indian penal code 1860 was drafted by

Any persons committed an office outside of India

Court of justice defined in sec_____ IPC

Under section 45 of IPC, life denotes

Offence defined in sec _____of IPC

Answer the question which follows form the application of the under mentioned legal principle.

Principle: False imprisonment is a total restraint of the liberty of a person, for however short a time, without lawful excuse.

A was driving down a road heading to her house. As she reached close to her house, she found that a few people led by B, protesting against an unfair law had blocked the road. There was no alternate road to her house and hence she was stuck there for around 5 minutes.

Principle: When a criminal act is done by one person in furtherance of the common intention of himself and some other persons, each of such person is liable for the act in the same manner as if it were done by each one of them.

A B and C decided to commit burglary. They broke into a locked house. However, before they had finished their work, a domestic servant appeared from the out-house and started shouting. A B and C left the house and started running away. They were pursued by a small crowd. A, on being caught by X, one of the persons pursuing them, stabbed him and ran away. By the time B and C had disappeared. X died on account of the stab wounds. Later, the police arrested all three. They were charged for attempted burglary and murder of X.

Principle: Whoever enters into or upon property in the possession of another with the intent to commit an offense or to intimidate, insult or annoy any person in possession of such property or having lawfully entered into or upon such property, unlawfully remains there with an intent to intimidate, insult or annoy any such person, or with the intent to commit an offense commits criminal trespass. A went to Delhi Law College to participate in a competition. After participating in the competition, A hid inside the campus so that he could steal a few books from the library.

Principle: When two or more persons agree to do an illegal act, it is criminal conspiracy punishable with imprisonment.

Facts: Mr. Bharath is a student of B.E. in Computer Science. He loves his computer very much. He considers his computer as his close friend and companion. On 1.4.2006, while interacting with his computer, he hacked into the Bank account of Mr. Javed and was successful in withdrawing money from Mr. Javed's bank account. He did it to please his girlfriend.

Principle: Conspiracy is a combination between two or more persons formed for the purpose of doing either an unlawful act or a lawful act by unlawful means.

Facts: X and Y conspire to poison Z. X in pursuance of the conspiracy procures the poison and delivers it to Y in order that he may administer it to Z. Y in pursuance of the conspiracy administers the poison in the presence of X and thereby causes Z's death.

Suppose X &Y were apprehended by A before administering poison to Z. What is the offense committed by X & Y?


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