What is meant by emasculation? When and why does a plant breeder employ this technique?
Emasculation is the process of removing anthers from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil), which is used in various plant hybridization techniques.
Emasculation is performed by plant breeders in bisexual flowers to obtain the desired variety of a plant by crossing a particular plant with the desired pollen grain. To remove the anthers, the flowers are covered with a bag before they open. This ensures that the flower is pollinated by pollen grains obtained from desirable varieties only. Later, the mature, viable, and stored pollen grains are dusted on the bagged stigma by breeders to allow artificial pollination to take place and obtain the desired plant variety.
Emasculation is the removal of stamens mainly the anthers from the flower buds before their dehiscence. This is mainly done to avoid self-pollination. Emasculation is one of the measures in the artificial hybridization. Plant breeders employed this technique to prevent the pollination within same flower or to pollinate stigmas with pollens of desired variety.
As a senior biology student you have been asked to demonstrate to the students of secondary level in your school, the procedure (s) that shall ensure cross – pollination in a hermaphrodite flower. List the different steps that you would suggest and provide reasons for each of the item.
Geitonogamous flowering plants are genetically autogamous but functionally cross-pollinated. Justify.
- Insect/Animal pollination
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- Pollinating agents: Wind, Water
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- Pollen-Pistil interaction
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