What does a polaroid consist of? How does it produce a linearly polarised light?
A polaroid consists of long-chain molecules aligned in a particular direction. The electric vectors (associated with the propagating light wave) along the direction of the aligned molecules get absorbed. Thus, if an unpolarised light wave is incident on such a polaroid, then the light wave will get linearly polarised with the electric vector oscillating along a direction perpendicular to the aligned molecule.