Pick Out Word from the Text that Mean the Same as the Following Word Or Expression. (Look in the Paragraph Indicated.)Took to Be True Without Proof : _________ - English (Moments)

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Pick out word from the text that mean the same as the following word or expression. (Look in the paragraph indicated.)

took to be true without proof : _________

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Solution

 took to be true without proof : Assumed

Concept: Reading
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
Chapter 8.1: Reach for the Top - Thinking about Language 1 [Page 103]

APPEARS IN

NCERT Class 9 English Beehive
Chapter 8.1 Reach for the Top
Thinking about Language 1 | Q 4.1 | Page 103

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Match the following.

something disarming something that makes you feel friendly, taking away your suspiciousness
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Read the newspaper clipping.

Listen to an interview between the police inspector in charge of the case, the house­keeper, Ms. Lakshmi and the watchman, Ram Singh. As you listen, note down the details of the burglar.

Inspector:   Hello, madam. I am Inspector Maan Singh. I am in charge of the burglary
case which occurred in the flat of your employer, Mr. Ravikant. It must have
been a harrowing experience for you.
Lakshmi:   Yes, it was a terrible experience. People like that should be locked up in a
prison.
Inspector:   If you will cooperate with us, we will catch them in no time. Were you alone
in the apartment at that time?
Lakshmi:  Yes, it was 11 :30 in the night and I was alone as my master and his wife had
left for Shimla.
Inspector:  How do you think the burglar gained entry into the house?
Lakshmi:  He might have come through the balcony and entered my room.
Inspector:  Now tell me something about his physique. What about his build? How tall
was he?
Lakshmi:   He was about 6 ft tall.
Inspector:   What about his physique?
Lakshmi:   He was not thin. He was well-built and rather plump.
Inspector:   What about his dress? What was he wearing?
Lakshmi:   I think his clothes were rather old and faded. He was wearing a black shirt
which was faded.
Inspector:   Do you remember the colour of his trousers?
Lakshmi:   They were of a dark shade -either black or blue.
Inspector: Can you tell me something about his face?

Lakshmi:   Unfortunately no. When he entered my room I panicked. But then I
gathered courage and screamed and tried to run away. But I was a bit late.
He struck me with a staff and I really don't remember anything after that.
May be I was knocked out.
Later on, I came to know that he broke into the bedroom and ran off with the
jewellery. But Ram Singh, the watchman, who tried to catch him may be
able to describe him better.
Inspector:   OK Lakshmi, thank you! If I need your help I will come again. You may have
to identify the burglar. Now, I will speak to Ram Singh.
Inspector to Ram Singh:
Ram Singh you were on duty and you tried to catch the burglar. You may be
able to give a good description of him. First, tell me about his hair.
Ram Singh:   He had straight black hair.
Inspector:    What about the shape of his face and his complexion?
Ram Singh: He had an oval face with grey eyes and I think he was dark complexioned.
Inspector:   Did he wear spectacles?
Ram Singh:   Yes, with a plastic frame and his nose was rather sharp.
Inspector:   What else can you remember about him? What about his teeth and lips?
Ram Singh:   His lips were quite thick.
Inspector:   Is there anything else that you remember about him?
Ram Singh:   When I heard some noise from inside, I ran in. I tried to stop the burglar and
we had a scuffie. During the struggle I noticed that he had six fingers on his
right hand. But he managed to run away and made good his escape on a
motorbike.
Inspector:   Thank you Ram Singh. We will make sketches on the basis of your
description and nab him.


  1. When I was a girl of about twelve, I used to stay in a village in north Karnataka with my grandparents. Those days, the transport system was not very good, so we used to get the morning papers only in the afternoon. The weekly magazine used to come one day late. All of us would wait eagerly for the bus, which used to come with the papers, weekly magazines and the post.
  2.  At that time, Triveni was a very popular writer in the Kannada language. She was a wonderful writer. Her style was easy to read and very convincing. Her stories usually dealt with complex psychological problems in the lives of ordinary people and were always very interesting. Unfortunately, for Kannada literature, she died very young. Even now, after forty years, people continue to appreciate her novels.
  3. One of her novels, called Kashi Yatre, was appearing as a serial in the Kannada weekly Karmaveera then. It is the story of an old lady and her ardent desire to go to Kashi or Varanasi. Most Hindus believe that going to Kashi and worshipping Lord Vishweshwara is the ultimate punya. This old lady also believed in this, andher struggle to go there was described in that novel. In the story, there was also a young orphan girl who falls in love but there is no money for the wedding. In the end, the old lady gives away all her savings without going to Kashi. She says, 'The happiness of this orphan girl is more important than worshipping Lord Vishweshwara at Kashi.
  4. 'My grandmother, Krishtakka, never went to school. So, she could not read. Every Wednesday, the magazine would come and I would read the next episode of the
    story to her. During that time, she would forget all her work and listen with the greatest concentration. Later, she could repeat the entire text by heart. My  grandmother too never went to Kashi so she identified herself with the novel's protagonist. More than anybody else, she was the one most interested in knowing
    what happened next in the story and used to insist that I read the serial out to her.   
  5.  After hearing what happened next in Kashi Yatre, she would join her friends at thetemple courtyard, where we children would also gather to play hide and seek. Shewould discuss the latest episode with her friends. At that time, I never understoodwhy there was so much of debate about the story.
  6. Once I went for a wedding with my cousins to the neighbouring village. In thosedays, a wedding was a great event. We children enjoyed ourselves thoroughly.
    We would eat and play endlessly, savouring the freedom because all the elders were busy. I went for a couple of days but ended up staying there for a week.
  7. When I came back to my village, I saw my grandmother in tears. I was surprised,for I had never seen her cry even in the most difficult of situations. What had happened? I was worried.
  8. 'Avva, is everything fine? Are you alright?'
  9. I used to call her Avva, which means mother in the Kannada spoken in north Karnataka.
  10. She nodded but did not reply. I did not understand and forgot about it. In the night,  after dinner, we were sleeping in the open terrace of the house. It was a summer night and there was a full moon. Avva came and sat next to me. Her affectionate hands touched my forehead. I realized she wanted to speak. I asked her, 'What is  the matter?'
  11. When I was a young girl I lost my mother. There was nobody to look after and guide me. My father was a busy man. He got married again. In those days, people never considered education essential for girls, so I never went to school. I got married very young and had children. I became very busy. Later I had grandchildren and always felt so much happiness in cooking and feeding all of you. At times I used to regret not going to school, so I made sure that my children and grandchildren studied well ...'
  12. I could not understand why my sixty-two-year-old grandmother was telling me, a twelve-year-old, the story of her life in the middle of the night. One thing I knew, I loved her immensely and there had to be some reason why she was talking to me. I looked at her face. It was unhappy and her eyes were filled with tears. She
    was a good-looking lady who was almost always smiling. Even today, I cannot forget the worried expression on her face. I leaned forward and held her hand.
  13. 'Avva, don't cry. What is the matter? Can I help you in any way?'
  14. 'Yes, I need your help. You know when you were away, Karmaveera came as usual. I opened the magazine. I saw the picture that accompanies the story of Kashi Yatre and I could not understand anything that was written. Many times, I rubbed my hands over the pages wishing to understand what was written. But I knew it was not possible. If only I was educated enough... I waited eagerly for you to return. I felt you would come early and read for me. I even thought of going to the village and asking you to read for me. I could have asked somebody in this village but I was too embarrassed to do so. I felt so very dependent and helpless. We are well-off, but what use is money when I cannot be independent?'
  15. I did not know what to answer. Avva continued.
  16. 'I have decided I want to learn the Kannada alphabet from tomorrow onwards. I will work very hard. I will keep Saraswati Pooja day during Dassara as the deadline.
    That day I should be able to read a novel on my own. I want to be independent.'
  17. I saw the determination on her face. Yet I laughed at her.
  18. 'Avva, at this age of sixty-two you want to learn the alphabet? All your hair is grey, your hands are wrinkled, you wear spectacles and you have so much work in the
    kitchen...'
  19. Childishly I made fun of the old lady. But she just smiled.
  20. 'For a good cause if you are determined, you can overcome any obstacle. I will work harder than anybody but I will do it. For learning, there is no age bar.'
  21. The next day onwards, I started my tuition. Avva was a wonderful student. The amount of homework she did was amazing. She would read, repeat, write and recite. I was her only teacher and she was my first student. Little did I know then that one day I would become a teacher in Computer Science and teach hundreds of students.
  22. The Dassara festival came as usual. Secretly, I bought Kashi Yatre which had been published as a novel by that time. My grandmother called me to the pooja place and made me sit down on a stool. She gifted me a frock. Then she did
    something unusual. She bent down and touched my feet. I was surprised and taken aback. Elders never touched the feet of youngsters. We have always touched the feet of God, elders and teachers. We considered that as a mark of
    respect. It is a great tradition but today the reverse had happened. It was not correct.
  23. She said, "I am touching the feet of a teacher, not
    my granddaughter; a teacher who taught me so well, with so much of affection that I can read any novel confidently in such a short period. Now I am independent. It is
    my duty to respect a teacher. Is it not written in our scriptures that a teacher should be respected, irrespective of the gender and age?'
  24. I did return namaskara to her by touching her feet and gave my gift to my first student. She opened it and read the title Kashi Yatre by Triveni and the publisher's
    name immediately .
  25. I knew, then, that my student had passed with flying colours.

About the Author
Sudha Murty was born in 1950 in Shiggaon in North Karnataka. A prolific writer in Kannada, she has written seven novels, four technical books, three travelogues and two collections of short stories. Her previous English book 'Wise and Otherwise' has
been translated into thirteen Indian languages. Her stories deal with common lives and human values such as charity, kindness and self-realisation. As a sensitive writer, she writes about the suffering of the people. The main characters in all her
books are highly educated, non compromising, highly principled women.


On the basis of your understanding of the poem, answer the following question
by ticking the correct option.

The tone and mood of the rain in the poem reflects its_________.


Parents alone are responsible for inculcating a good sense of dental hygiene
amongst children. Do you agree/disagree? Discuss with your partner


Understanding the tenses:

The tense forms that have been practised and discussed in this chapter, allow
you to show accurately and subtly the time and the relationship of actions and
events with it. We use them in speech and writing.

Understanding and recognising how the tense forms are used.

 Can you identity the present tense forms.

Simple Present                                                      Present Perfect
1. I llli!¥ tennis                                                       1. I have played tennis
2. You read well.                                                    2. You have read well.
3. She sees something                                          3. She has seen something.

 Present Continuous
1. I am playing tennis
2. You are reading well
3. She is looking at something.

 Simple Past                                                Past Perfect
1. I knew about it                                       1. I had known about it
2. You took it away                                     2. You had taken it away
3. She finished her work.                            3. She had finished her work.

Present Continuous                                       Past Continuous
1. I am reading a book.                                  I was reading a book.
2. They are playing football outside.              They were playing football outside.
3. She is looking for her friend.                      Last week, she was looking for her friend.


Present Perfect Continuous
Read the following sentences with the present perfect continuous tense
form
1. Mr and Mrs Singh have been living in the same house in the same town
for the last five years.
2. "Have you beenkeepingyourpocketmoneysafely, Rani?"
These sentences illustrate the main use of the Present Perfect Continuous
tense to show that the action started in the past and is still in progress in
the present.


Listen to the extract on Tigers read by teacher/ student which is given below , and as you listen, complete the summary given below. 

Save Tigers 
The price of human greed is being paid by yet another animal species the Tiger. Today the tiger population is getting depleted at an alarming rate. According to a recent survey, one tiger is being poached everyday. If the present state of affairs is allowed to continue, the next generation will not get to see the majestic animal even in the zoo. 
It is high time that action is taken to protect and conserve the tigers in order to maintain the ecological balance. Stringent laws against poachers must be enforced. It is over 40 years since the tigers became our national animal. As a result, the species was to be protected. Ironically, they are closer to extinction now than ever before. Children, scientists, conservationists, NGOs and institutions in India and world wide have put their heart and soul into trying to save the tiger. Yet there is little we all have been able to do. The responsibility and the power of protection lies with the government, specifically the forest department. 
Let us not forget that if we destroy nature, ultimately we will be destroyed ourselves. 
Tiger, an apex predator is an indicator of our ecosystem's health. Saving the tiger means we save the forest, since tiger cannot live in places where trees have vanished, and in turn secure food and water for all. 
Tigers are now an endangered species. Today there are about 5000 to 7,400 left in the world. Three types of tigers - The Bali, Javan and Caspian tigers have become extinct. The two reasons why tigers are endangered are: Habitat loss and illegal killing. 
Illegal Killing 
One of the most concerning threat to our national animal that needs to be recognised is poaching. Tigers are killed to make rugs and coats out of their skins. 
In many Asian cultures medicines made from tiger's body organs are believed to cure diseases. 

Habitat Loss
Forests where tigers live are cut by humans for farming, building houses and roads. This leads to tigers becoming homeless and without any food. Since other animals also die when forests are cut, it leads to tigers becoming weak and their ultimate death. 

Project Tiger 
Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India in 1972 to protect the Bengal Tigers. It was launched on April 1, 1973 and has become one of the most successful wild life conservation ventures. The project aims at Tiger conservation in specially constituted Tiger reserves representative of various bio geographical regions through out India. It strives to maintain a viable conservation based on tiger population in their natural environment. 
Project Tiger was Indira Gandhi's pet project. The main achievements of this project are excellent recovery of the habitat and consequent increase in the tiger population in the reserve areas, from a mere 268 in 7 reserves in 1972 to above one thousand in 28 reserves in 2006. 
Tigers being at the apex of the food chain can be considered as the indicator of the integrity of the ecosystem. They can be found in a wide range of habitats, from the evergreen and monsoon forests of the Inda-Malayan realm to the mixed coniferous - deciduous woodlands of the Far east Russia and the mangrove swamps of the Sundarbans, shared by India and Bangladesh. 
Tigers are mostly nocturnal but in the northern part of its range, the Siberian subspecies may also be active during the day at winter-time. All wild tigers live in Asia, others live in the humid jungles of Sumatra. The body length is 140 - 280 cm and the tail length is 60 to 95 cm. The upper part of the animal ranges from reddish orange to ochre and the under parts all whitish. The body has a series of black stripes of black to dark grey colour. 


Listen to an interview between a radio jockey and a pilot. 


Here is a newspaper report of a young girl who went back in time to see how her home town looked seventy years ago.

Dehra Times

Purkul, 7 July, 2015

It is reported that Kareena, a twelve year old girl living in Purkul, went back in time using a time machine.

Seventy years ago her home town was an ideal place to live in. Her home town had not been invaded by the marvels of technology. Industries had not been set up then, so the air was not polluted. She could see children playing in the garden. Some children were listening to the stories told by their grandmothers. Happiness and contentment prevailed everywhere.

In the newspaper report above, the focus is on the changes as observed by Kareena.
  1. Kareena’s hometown had not been invaded by the marvels of technology.
  2. Industries had not been set up.
  3. The air was not polluted.
  4. Some children were listening to stories told to them by their grandmothers.

Notices
Read the following captions

. Change them into active (voice) and explain their meaning.
e.g. All credit cards accepted.
We accept credit cards.
Meaning: The organization accepts credit cards from customers for all their transactions.

1. Domestic help required
_______________________________________
2. All types of computer servicing undertaken.
_______________________________________
3. Using cell phones is not allowed (University Campus)
_______________________________________
4. Spoken English classes conducted.
_______________________________________
5. All Recharge Coupons sold here.
_______________________________________


Exchange information with another group and record it. Then in groups of four discuss the results of the following: 
• Do boys and girls spend the same amount of time at the computer? 
• Do their tastes and preferences change as they grow older? 
• Are the number of hours spent at the computer/studying at home/leisure/ internet different between boys and girls? 
• Do the number of hours per week spent at the computer/studying at home/ internet/ leisure activities change as students grow up? 


What does he plant who plants a tree?
He plants, in sap and leaf and wood,
In love of home and loyalty
And far-cast thought of civic good____
His blessing on the neighbourhood,
Who in the hollow of his hand
Holds all the growth of all our land____
A nation's growth from sea to sea
Stirs in his heart who plants a tree.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow:

Does the man plant a tree because of his love of society and his nation?


What does he plant who plants a tree?
He plants, in sap and leaf and wood,
In love of home and loyalty
And far-cast thought of civic good____
His blessing on the neighbourhood,
Who in the hollow of his hand
Holds all the growth of all our land____
A nation's growth from sea to sea
Stirs in his heart who plants a tree.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow:

What is meant by a nation’s growth from sea to sea?


Six humans trapped by happenstance
In black and bitter cold.
Each one possessed a stick of wood,
Or so the story's told.
Their dying fire in need of logs;
The first man held his back.
For on the faces around the fire,
He noticed one was black.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow:

Explain with reference to context


The black man's face bespoke revenge
As the fire passed from his sight.
For all he saw in his stick of wood
Was a chance to spite the white.

The last man of this forlorn group
Did nought except for gain.
Giving only to those who gave
Was how he played the game.

Their logs held tight in death's still hands
Was proof of human sin.
They didn't die from the cold without
They died from the cold within.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow.

What does this say about what prejudice can do to people and the importance of working together?


Bangle sellers are we who bear
Our shining loads to the temple fair...
Who will buy these delicate, bright
Rainbow-tinted circles of light?
Lustrous tokens of radiant lives,
For happy daughters and happy wives.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow.

What is the tone in this stanza? Quote.


Some are Purple and gold flecked grey
For she who has journeyed through life midway,
Whose hands have cherished , whose love has blest,
And cradled fair sons on her faithful breast,
And serves her household in fruitful pride,
And worship the gods at her husband's side.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow:

What hues of bangles are cherished by a bride ? What are they symbolic of?


"Now tell us what 'twas all about,"
Young Peterkin, he cries;
And little wilhelmine looks up
with wonder-waiting eyes;
"Now tell us all about the war,
And what they fought each other for."
"It was the English," Kaspar cried,
"Who put the French to rout;
But what they fought each other for,
I could not well make out;
But everybody said,"quoth he,
"That 'twas a famous victory.

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow.

Quote the lines that show the children were curious about the battle and its outcome?


"They say it was a shocking sight
After the field was won;
For many thousand bodies here
Lay rotting in the sun;
But things like that, you know, must be 
After a famous victory.
"Great praise the Duke of Marlbro'won,
And our good Prince Eugene."
"Why,'twas a very wicked thing!"
Said little Wilhelmine.

"Nay...nay...my little girl,"quoth he,
"It was a famous victory.
"And everybody praised the Duke
Who this great fight did win."
"But what good came of it at last?"
Quoth little Peterkin.
"Why that I cannot tell,"said he,
"But 'twas a famous victory."

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow.

How does the poet describe the scene on the field after the battle?


Such wondrous, fine, fantastic tales
Of dragons, gypsies, queens, and whales
And treasure isles, and distant shores
Where smugglers rowed with muffled oars,
And pirates wearing purple pants,
And sailing ships and elephants,
And cannibals crouching 'round the pot,
Stirring away at something hot.
(It smells so good , what can it be?
Good gracious, it's Penelope.)
The younger ones had Beatrix Potter
With Mr.Tod,the dirty rotter,
And Squirrel Nutkin,Pigling Bland,
And Mrs.Tiggy-Winkle and-
Just How The Camel Got His Hump,
And How the Monkey Lost His Rump,
And Mr. Toad, and bless my soul,
There's Mr.Rat and Mr. Mole-
Oh, books, what books they used to know,
Those children living long ago!

Read the lines given above and answer the question given below.

Why does Dahl call television an idiot box?


The waves beside them danced, but they
Out-did the sparkling leaves in glee;
A poet could not be  but gay,
In such a jocund company!
I gazed-and gazed-but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:

Read the lines given above and answer the question that follow.

Explain with reference to context.


A free bird leaps on the back
Of the wind and floats downstream
Till the current ends and dips his wing
In the orange suns rays
And dares to claim the sky.

Read the above lines and answer the question that follow.

What does the caged bird’s singing reveal about him?


 

The boy looked up. He took his hands from his face and looked up at his teacher. The light from Mr. Oliver’s torch fell on the boy’s face, if you could call it a face. He had no eyes, ears, nose or mouth. It was just a round smooth head with a school cap on top of it.

And that’s where the story should end, as indeed it has for several people who have had similar experiences and dropped dead of inexplicable heart attacks. But for Mr. Oliver, it did not end there. The torch fell from his trembling hand. He turned and scrambled down the path, running blindly through the trees and calling for help. He was still running towards the school buildings when he saw a lantern swinging in the middle of the path. Mr. Oliver had never before been so pleased to see the night watchman. He stumbled up to the watchman, gasping for breath and speaking incoherently.

What is it, Sahib? Asked the watchman, has there been an accident? Why are you running?

I saw something, something horrible, a boy weeping in the forest and he had no face.
No face, Sahib?
No eyes, no nose, mouth, nothing.
Do you mean it was like this, Sahib? asked the watchman, and raised the lamp to his own face. The watchman had no eyes, no ears, no features at all, not even an eyebrow. The wind blew the lamp out and Mr. Oliver had his heart attack.

Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

Why did Mr Oliver tell the boy that he should not be out at that hour?


Most terribly cold it was; it snowed, and was nearly quite dark, and evening— the last evening of the year. In this cold and darkness there went along the street a poor little girl, bareheaded, and with naked feet. When she left home she had slippers on, it is true; but what was the good of that? They were very large slippers, which her mother had hitherto worn; so large were they; and the poor little thing lost them as she scuffled away across the street, because of two carriages that rolled by dreadfully fast.

One slipper was nowhere to be found; the other had been laid hold of by an urchin, and off he ran with it; he thought it would do capitally for a cradle when he some day or other should have children himself. So the little maiden walked on with her tiny naked feet, that were quite red and blue from cold. She carried a quantity of matches in an old apron, and she held a bundle of them in her hand. Nobody had bought anything of her the whole livelong day; no one had given her a single farthing. She crept along trembling with cold and hunger—a very picture of sorrow, the poor little thing!

Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

Does the author give us a glimpse into the Victorian society?


She again rubbed a match on the wall, and the light shone round her; in the brightness stood her old grandmother, clear and shining, yet mild and loving in her appearance. “Grandmother,” cried the little one, “O take me with you; I know you will go away when the match burns out; you will vanish like the warm stove, the roast goose, and the large, glorious Christmas-tree.” And she made haste to light the whole bundle of matches, for she wished to keep her grandmother there. And the matches glowed with a light that was brighter than the noon-day, and her grandmother had never appeared so large or so beautiful. She took the little girl in her arms, and they both flew upwards in brightness and joy far above the earth, where there was neither cold nor hunger nor pain, for they were with God.

In the dawn of morning there lay the poor little one, with pale cheeks and smiling mouth, leaning against the wall; she had been frozen to death on the last evening of the year; and the New-year’s sun rose and shone upon a little corpse! The child still sat, in the stiffness of death, holding the matches in her hand, one bundle of which was burnt. “She tried to warm herself,” said some. No one imagined what beautiful things she had seen, nor into what glory she had entered with her grandmother, on New-year’s day.

Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

Why was there a smile on the girl’s lips? Did the people understand?


From the day, perhaps a hundred years ago when he sun had hatched him in a sandbank, and he had broken his shell, and got his head out and looked around, ready to snap at anything, before he was even fully hatched-from that day, when he had at once made for the water, ready to fend for himself immediately, he had lived by his brainless craft and ferocity. Escaping the birds of prey and the great carnivorous fishes that eat baby crocodiles, he has prospered, catching all the food he needed, and storing it till putrid in holes in the bank. Tepid water to live in and plenty of rotted food grew him to his great length. Now nothing could pierce the inch-?thick armoured hide. Not even rifle bullets,

which would bounce off. Only the eyes and the soft underarms offered a place. He lived well in the river, sunning himself sometimes with other crocodiles-muggers, as well as the long-? snouted fish-?eating gharials-on warm rocks and sandbanks where the sun dried the clay on them quite white, and where they could plop off into the water in a moment if alarmed. The big crocodile fed mostly on fish, but also on deer and monkeys come to drink, perhaps a duck or two.

Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

How did he survive as a baby crocodile from the day he was hatched.


From the day, perhaps a hundred years ago when he sun had hatched him in a sandbank, and he had broken his shell, and got his head out and looked around, ready to snap at anything, before he was even fully hatched-from that day, when he had at once made for the water, ready to fend for himself immediately, he had lived by his brainless craft and ferocity. Escaping the birds of prey and the great carnivorous fishes that eat baby crocodiles, he has prospered, catching all the food he needed, and storing it till putrid in holes in the bank. Tepid water to live in and plenty of rotted food grew him to his great length. Now nothing could pierce the inch-?thick armoured hide. Not even rifle bullets,

which would bounce off. Only the eyes and the soft underarms offered a place. He lived well in the river, sunning himself sometimes with other crocodiles-muggers, as well as the long-? snouted fish-?eating gharials-on warm rocks and sandbanks where the sun dried the clay on them quite white, and where they could plop off into the water in a moment if alarmed. The big crocodile fed mostly on fish, but also on deer and monkeys come to drink, perhaps a duck or two.

Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

What protected him now? How?


Suddenly all the tension seemed to ebb out of my body as the truth of what he said hit me. Confidently, I drew a line a full foot in back of the board and proceeded to jump from there. I qualified with almost a foot to spare.

That night I walked over to Luz Long’s room in the Olympic village to thank him. I knew that if it hadn’t been for him I probably wouldn’t be jumping in the finals the following day. We sat in his quarters and talked for two hours—about track and field, ourselves, the world situation, a dozen other things.

When I finally got up to leave, we both knew that a real friendship had been formed. Luz would go out to the field the next day trying to beat me if he could. But I knew that he wanted me to do my best—even if that meant my winning.

Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow.

Suddenly all the tension seemed to ebb out of my body as the truth of what he said hit me.


Given below are four words and phrases. Find the words which have a similar meaning in the passage:
(1) Coming near 
( 2 ) Disappeared suddenly
(3) Awakening from sleep
(4) Moved slowly and gradually


I could hear the squeaking that heralded the evening arrival of the bats. I listened to the noises of the approaching night. Every day my hearing grew sharper. I was learning to filter out whatever I did not need to listen to, and giving no sign that I could hear everything that went on in the house.

I could not sleep. The air was heavy and still, the moon hidden behind thick banks of cloud. Lord Otori was sound asleep. I did not want to leave the house I'd come to love so much, but I seemed to be bringing nothing but trouble to it. Perhaps it would be better for everyone if I just vanished in the night.    [5]

 
Now I heard the hiss of hot water as the bath was prepared, the clatter of dishes from the kitchen, the sliding sigh of the cook's knife, a dog barking two streets away, and the sounds of feet on the wooden bridges on the canals. I knew the sounds of the house, day and night, in the sunshine and under the rain. This evening I realized I was always listening for something more. I was waiting too. For what?        [10]


I began to wonder if I could get out of the house without setting the dogs barking and arousing the guards. I started consciously listening to the dogs. Usually, I heard them bark on and off throughout the night, but I'd learned to distinguish their barks and to ignore them. I set my ears for them but heard nothing. Then I started listening for the guards: the sound of a foot on stone or a whispered conversation. Nothing. Sounds that should have been there been missing from the night's familiar web.        [20]


Now I was wide-awake, straining my ears to hear. There came the slightest of sounds, hardly more than a tremor, between the window and the ground.    


For a moment I thought it was the earth-shaking, as it so often did. Another tiny tremble followed, then another. Someone was climbing up the side of the house        [25]


My first instinct was to yell out, but cunning took over. I rose from the mattress and crept silently to Lord Otori's side. I knelt beside him and whispered in his ear, "Lord Otori, someone is, outside."      [30]


He woke instantly and then reached for the sword and knife that lay beside him. I gestured to the window. The faint tremor came again.


Lord Otori passed the knife to me and stepped to the wall. I moved to the other side of the window. We waited for the assassin to climb in.


Step by step he came up the wall, stealthy and unhurried as if he had all the time in the world. We waited for him with the same patience.    [35]

He paused on the sill to take out the knife he planned to use on us and then stepped inside. Lord Otori took him in a stranglehold. The intruder wriggled backwards. I leaped at him, and the three of us fell into the garden like a flurry of fighting cats.  [40]


The man fell first, across the stream, striking his head on a boulder. Lord Otori landed on his feet. My fall was broken by one of the shrubs. The intruder groaned, tried to rise, but slipped back into the water.


"Get a light," Lord Otori said.


I ran to the house, took a light that still burned in one of the candle stands and carried it back to the garden.    [45]


The assassin had died without regaining consciousness. It turned out he had a poison pellet in his mouth and had crushed it as he tell. He was dressed in black, with no marking on his clothes. I held the light over him. There was nothing to tell us who he was.    [50]

 

(i) Given below are four words and phrases. Find the words which have a similar meaning in the passage:
(1) Coming near 
( 2 ) Disappeared suddenly
(3) Awakening from sleep
(4) Moved slowly and gradually 

(ii) For each of the words given below, write a sentence of at least ten words using the same word unchanged in form, but with a different  meaning from that which it carries in the passage:
(1) Bats ( line 1 )
( 2 ) Sign ( line 4 )
( 3 ) Banks (  line 6 )
( 4 )  Back ( line 43 )


Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Richard Parker was so named because of a clerical error.
A panther was terrorizing the Khulna district of Bangladesh, just outside the Sundarbans. It had recently carried off a little girl. She was the seventh person killed in two months by the animal. And it was growing bolder. The previous victim was a man who had been attacked in broad daylight in his field. The beast dragged him off into the forest, and his corpse was later found hanging from a tree. The villagers kept a watch nearby that night, hoping to surprise the panther and kill it, but it never appeared.
The Forest Department hired a professional hunter. He set up a small, hidden platform in a free near a river where two of the attacks had taken place. A goat was tied to a stake on the river’s bank. The hunter waited several nights. He assumed the panther would be an old, wasted male with worn teeth, incapable of catching anything more difficult than a human. But it was a sleek tiger that stepped into the open one night: a female with a single cub. The goat bleated. Oddly, the cub, who looked to be about three months old, paid little attention to the goat. It raced to the water’s edge, where it drank eagerly. Its mother followed it. Of hunger and thirst, thirst is the greater urge. Only once the tiger had quenched her thirst did she turn to the goat to satisfy her hunger.
The hunter had two rifles with him: one with real bullets, the other with immobilizing darts. This animal was not the man-eater, but so close to human habitation she might pose a threat to the villagers, especially as she was with cub. He picked up the gun with the darts. He fired as the tiger was about to attack the goat. The tiger reared up and snarled and raced away. But immobilizing darts don’t bring on sleep gently—they knock the creature out without warning. A burst of activity on the animal’s part makes it act all the faster. The hunter called his assistants on the radio. They found the tiger about two hundred yards from the river. She was still conscious. Her back legs had given way and her balance on her front legs was shaky. When the men got close, she tried to get away but could not manage it. She turned on them, lifting a paw that was meant to kill. It only made her lose her balance. She collapsed and the Pondicherry Zoo had two new tigers. The cub was found in a bush close by, meowing with fear.
The hunter, whose name was Richard Parker, picked it up with his bare hands and, remembering how it had rushed to drink in the river, named it Thirsty. But the shipping clerk at the Howrah train station was evidently a man both confused and diligent. All the papers received with the cub clearly stated that its name was Richard Parker, that the hunter’s first name was Thirsty add that his family name was None Given. Richard Parker’s name stuck. I don’t know if the hunter was ever called Thirsty None Given!

(a) Give the meaning of each of the following words as used in the passage.
One word answers ob short phrases will be accepted.

  1. corpse (line 6)
  2. quenched (line 16)
  3. reared (line 20)

(b) Answer the following questions briefly in your own words.

  1. Why does the author say that the panther ‘was getting bolder’? 
  2. Why did the Forest Department hire a professional hunter? 
  3. What did the hunter expect to encounter? What did he actually encounter? 
  4. What did the tiger do before turning to attack the goat? Why did it do that? 
  5. Why did the hunter decide to shoot the tiger though he knew it was not the man-eater?
  6. What name did the hunter give to the cub? Why? 

(c)

(i) In not more than 60 words narrrate how the hunter and his assistants captured the tiger and her cub. 
(ii) Give a suitable title to your summary in 3(c). Give a reason to justify your choice. 


Give an account of the trip to The Victoria am Albert Museum that was planned by Braithwaif, for his class.


Read the extract give below and answer the questions that follow:

All around the field spectators were gathered Cheeril!g on all the young women and men Then the final event of the day was approaching The last race about the beginning. 
- Nine Gold Medals, David Roth 

(i) Where had the 'young women and men' come from? What had brought them together? How had they prepared themselves for the event?

(ii) What was the last event of the day? How many athletes were participating in this event? What signal were they waiting for? 

(iii) What happened to the youngest athlete halfway through the race? How did he respond? 

(iv) What 'strange' tum did the story take at this point? 

(v) Why does the poet say that the banner - 'Special Olympics' could not have been nearer the mark? What human quality does the poem celebrate?


Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : 

An angry athlete is an athlete who will make mistakes, as any coach will tell you I was no exception. On the first of my three qualifying jumps, I leaped from several inches beyond the · take-off board for a foul. 

(i)  When and where is this story set? What reason does the narrator Jesse Owens give for the heightened nationalistic feelings at this time? 

(ii) In which event had Owens been confident of winning a gold medal? Why?

(iii) What had, made Owens angry enough to make mistakes?

(iv) Name Owens' rival who approached him at this point. What advice did this athlete give Owens? 

(v) How did the two athletes perform in the finals? What does Jesse Owens consider his 'Greatest Olympic Prize'? Why?


“He had the distinction of being the only member of the party to have bagged any game...”The phrase in underlined means

Mark the right answer.


By pressing the red button, Tilloo made the mechanical hand from the spacecraft cease to work.


Describe the change the cherry tree underwent after the kind old poured a pinch of ash over it.


The wicked farmer wanted to be rich like his neighbour. What happened every time when he tried to do so?


What did the farmer’s wife regret?


How did Ray communicate with him?


When did “the unfriendly face” of the visitor turn truly friendly?


Sketch the character of Ray in about 80 words. What qualities of Ray do you admire most?


Why did Swami Haridas say Tansen was ‘talented’?


Why did Akbar ask Tansen to join his court?


How do we know that Akbar was fond of Tansen? Give two reasons.


Why did Tansen agree to sing Raga Deepak?


Narrate the story of the reptiles as told by Zai Whitaker in not more than 80 words.


Why did Vijay Singh ask the ghost to accompany him to town next day?


Can you recall the word used for a cobra’s long sharp teeth? Where did you come across this word first?


How did Taro manage to meet the demand of his father?


(i) Like Patrick in the story ‘Who Did Patrick’s Homework’, Taro is helped by magic. Do you believe in magic? What are the magical things that happen in these stories?

(ii) Which story do you like better, and why? Do you know such stories in other languages? Discuss these questions in class.


Answer the following question:

Where was Kalpana Chawla born? Why is she called an Indian – American?


What did Miss Beam tell the author about the game being played among the friends?


Write True or False against the following statement.
Peter is an only child.


Find out the different kinds of work done by the people in your neighbourhood. Make different cards for different kinds of work. You can make the card colourful with pictures of the persons doing the work.


Who went the other way?


Add im- or in- to each of the following words and use them in place of the italicised words in the sentences given below.

patient, proper, possible, sensitive, competent

That’s not a proper remark to make under the circumstances.


Add im- or in- to each of the following words and use them in place of the italicised words in the sentences given below.

patient, proper, possible, sensitive, competent

He appears to be without sensitivity. In fact, he is very emotional.


Encircle the correct article.

Take (a/an/the) red one in (a/an/the) fruit bowl. You may take (a/an/the) orange also, if you like.


Study the following phrases and their meanings. Use them appropriately to complete the sentences that follow.

After a very long spell of heat, the weather is ………….. at last.


Read the lines given below and answer the following question:

Iris: Of her society
Be not afraid. I met her deity
Cutting the clouds towards Paphos, and her son
Dove-drawn with her.

Whom does Iris refer to as ‘her’?


Read the lines given below and answer the following question:

Iris: Of her society
Be not afraid. I met her deity
Cutting the clouds towards Paphos, and her son
Dove-drawn with her.

Why was the person addressed afraid of “her”?


Read the lines given below and answer the following question:

“But my darling, if you love me,” thought Miss Meadows, “I don’t
Mind how much it is. Love me as little as you like.”

What had the “darling” informed Miss Meadows?


Read the lines given below and answer the following question:

Sophocles long ago
Heard it on the Agean…

What did he hear on the Agean?


Answer the following question.

Who advised Golu to go to the Limpopo River?


Read the passage given below and answer the questions (i), (ii) and (iii) that follow:

(1)

Something happens to cats after we have enjoyed a delicious meal. Call it a feline sugar hit or a rush of good feelings. Abandoning our usually sedentary nature, we transform into crazy beasts who thunder down corridors, spring from one piece of furniture to another, or pounce from behind half-closed doors to attack the shoelaces of unsuspecting passersby. It is as though we are temporarily possessed.

 

 

5

(2)

That, at least, is my excuse, dear reader - and the only explanation I can offer for my entirely unplanned global TV debut.

 

(3)

To be fair, I had no way of knowing that my master was receiving visitors that particular afternoon. Nor that he was being interviewed live, let alone by one of America’s most famous journalists.

10

(4)

All I knew was that, a few minutes after gorging myself on a favourite treat of creamy pudding, I felt that sudden, primal explosion of energy. I made my way back to the suite of rooms that I shared with my master and felt an overpowering compulsion to do something completely mad. I wanted to run like a furious jungle cat, at that particular moment.

 

 

 

15

(5)

Bursting through the door of the room in which my master received visitors, I tore up the carpet as I raced towards the sofa opposite where he was sitting. I ripped its fabric as I scrambled up its side like a savage creature clawing its way up a perilous cliff. Then with a final, frenzied burst, I launched myself off one arm of the sofa, leaping towards the other.

 

 

20

(6)

It was only at this point that I realised the sofa was occupied by the journalist. She was halfway through a sentence, and my abrupt appearance caught my master's guest completely by surprise.

 

(7)

You know, when something truly unexpected happens, time can seem to slow down. Well, that’s how it was. As I flew past the woman's face, her expression turned from one of calm engagement to that of total surprise.

25

(8)

I As she pushed back in her seat to avoid me, the shock on her face could not have been more evident.

 

(9)

But, dear reader, she was not more shaken than me. I had not been expecting anyone on the sofa, let alone a TV celebrity, nor one who was mid-interview. As I headed towards the opposite end of the sofa, for the first time I observed the lighting, the cameras and the crew watching the action from the shadows. By the time I landed on the other arm of the sofa, all the energy that had propelled me was gone.

30

 

 

35

(10)

I was, no longer, a furious jungle cat.

 

(11)

The journalist looked at me. I looked at her. Both of us were taking in what had just happened. I was also conscious of the cameras still rolling as well as many pairs of eyes watching me at that moment. My moment of global glory.

 

 

Adapted from: The Dalai Lama's Cat Omnibus
By David Michie

 

(i)

  1. Given below are three words and phrases. Find the words which have a similar meaning in the passage: [3]
    1. inactive
    2. eating in a greedy manner
    3. dangerous
  2. For each of the words given below, write a sentence of at least ten words using the same word unchanged in form, but with a different meaning from that which it carries in the passage: [3]
    1. thunder (line 3)
    2. spring (line 3)
    3. past (line 26)

(ii) Answer the following questions in your own words as briefly as possible:

  1. What is the usual nature of the narrator's kind? How is it differently presented in the passage? [2]
  2. What did the 'favourite treat of creamy pudding' do to the narrator? [2]
  3. Describe the actions of the narrator after bursting into the visitors' room. [2]
  4. How did the journalist react when the narrator 'flew past' her face? [2]

(iii) Summarise how the narrator became a global celebrity (paragraphs 4 to 11). You are required to write the summary in the form of a connected passage in about 100 words. Failure to keep within the word limit will be penalised. [6]


What does Cares say to bless the young couple?


In Act V, Scene I of the play The Tempest, Alonso says, "Irreparable is the loss." What is the irreparable loss being referred to here?


Where did B. Wordsworth live in the short story, B. Wordsworth?


In the short story, To Build a Fire, which "wild idea" came into the Man's head when all seemed lost?


In the poem, Dover Beach, where is the "eternal note of sadness" heard? 


In the poem, Birches, how are the crystal shells shed?


In the poem, We are the Music Makers, what are the 'sea-breakers'?


Complete the following sentence by providing a reason:

In Act V of the play The Tempest, Prospero greets Gonzalo first because ______.


Complete the following sentence by providing a reason:

In Act III, Scene II of the play, The Tempest, Stephano threatens to tie Trinculo to the next tree because ______.


Complete the following sentence by providing a reason:

In the short story, The Sound Machine, Dr. Scott thought Klausner was ill when Klausner rang up the doctor because ______.


Complete the following sentence by providing a reason:
In the short story, To Build a Fire, the fire built by the man under the tree was extinguished because ______.


Read the passage given below and answer the questions (i), (ii) and (iii) that follow: 

The Police Superintendent is walking across the market square followed by a constable. Suddenly he hears a loua shout, "So you bite, you damned brute? Lads, don't let the dog go! Biting is prohibited nowadays!" There is the sound of 'yelping and the Superintendent sees a dog running out of a timber-yard. A man runs after it and tries to seize the dog by its hind legs'. Sleepy countenances protrude from the shops and soon a crowd gathers.

"It looks like a row, your honour", says the constable. The Superintendent turns to his left and strides towards the crowd. He sees the aforementioned man standing close by the gate of the timber-yard, holding his right hand in the air and displaying a bleeding finger to the crowd. He was the town's goldsmith. The culprit who has caused the sensation, a white puppy with a sharp muzzle and a yellow patch on its back, is sitting on the ground. "What's it all about?", the Superintendent inquires, pushing his way through the crowd, "Who was it that shouted?"

The goldsmith answers, "I was walking along here not interfering with anyone when this low brute, for no rhyme or reason, bit my finger. I am a working man. Mine is fine work. I must have damages, for I shan't be able to use this finger for a week."

"I won't let this pass! Find out whose dog it is and draw up a report!", the Superintendent commands the constable.

"I fancy it's General Zhigalov's dog", says someone in the crowd. Suddenly indignant, the Superintendent turns to the goldsmith and asks, "There's one thing I can't make out. How it could have bitten you? Surely it couldn't reach your finger. It's a little dog, and you are a great hulking fellow! You must have scratched your finger with a nail, and then the idea struck you to get damages for it. I know your sort!"

"No, that's not the General's dog", says the constable, with profound conviction, "the General has valuable dogs, and goodness knows what this is! No coat, no shape, a low creature." The Superintendent says, "You have been injured, goldsmith and we can't let the matter drop. You must be compensated for the damage."

"It is the General's, that's certain!", says a voice in the crowd. "Oh! Constable, take the dog to the General's and inquire there. Say I found it and sent it. And tell them not to let it out into the street. A dog is a delicate animal. And you, you goldsmith, put your hand down. It's your own fault." On seeing the General's cook approaching, the Superintendent asks him, "Is it one of yours?" "We have never had one like this", says the cook. "There's no need to waste time asking", decides the Superintendent, "it's a stray dog. Chase it away!"

"It's not our dog", the cook goes on, "it belongs to the General's brother who arrived the other day."
"Is his Excellency's brother here? Delighted to hear if', says the Superintendent, and his whole face beams with an ecstatic smile, "it's not a bad pup. A lively creature, indeed. Come, why are you shivering, you nice little pup?"

The cook calls the dog and walks away from the timber-yard.

The crowd laughs at the goldsmith.

 

    1. Given below are three words and phrases. Find the words which have a similar meaning in the passage:
      1. faces
      2. walks purposefully
      3. precious
    2. For each of the words given below, choose the sentence that uses the same word unchanged in form, but with a different meaning from that which it carries in the passage:
      1. row
        1. We sat in a row at the back of the room.
        2. The vegetables were planted in neat rows.
        3. A row has broken out amongst the vendors.
        4. The fisherman rowed us back to the shore.
      2. left
        1. I instructed the driver to take a left turn at the intersection.
        2. The bank is situated to the left of the library.
        3. They left the house at six o'clock in the morning to reach the airport on time.
        4. He's giving away money left, right and centre.
      3. fancy
        1. He fancies himself as a serious actor.
        2. I was foot-loose and fancy-free in those days.
        3. He had some fanciful notion about crossing the Atlantic in a barrel. 
        4. He sells poor goods, but charges fancy prices.
  1. Answer the following questions in your own words as briefly as possible:
    1. How does power play an important role in the Superintendent's decisions?
    2. Why does the goldsmith ask for damages?
    3. Who does the dog belong to? How do we know it?
  2. Trace the Superintendent's reactions from the time the initial voice in the crowd is heard till the cook takes the dog away. You are required to write the summary in the form of a connected passage in about 100 words. Failure to keep within the word limit will be penalised.

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