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“Physicians Make Diagnosis Looking at a Person’S Physical Symptoms”. How Are Psychological Disorders Diagnosed? - Psychology

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Answer in Brief

“Physicians make diagnosis looking at a person’s physical symptoms”. How are psychological disorders diagnosed?

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Solution

Psychological disorders can be diagonised by the observations, interviews, counsellings etc.

In ancient days, abnormal behaviour can be explained by the operation of supernatural and magical forces such as evil spirits (bhoot-pret) or the devil (shaitan). In many societies, the shaman, or medicine man (ojha) is a person who is believed to have contact with supernatural forces and is the medium through which spirits communicate with human beings. Through the shaman, an afflicted person can learn which spirits are responsible for her/his problems and what needs to be done to appease them.

A recurring theme in the history of abnormal psychology is the belief that individuals behave strangely because their bodies and their brains are not working properly. This is the biological or organic approach. In the modern era, there is evidence that body and brain processes have been linked to many types of maladaptive behaviour. For certain types of disorders, correcting these defective biological processes results in improved functioning.

Another approach is the psychological approach. According to this point of view, psychological problems are caused by inadequacies in the way an individual thinks, feels, or perceives the world.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has published an official manual describing and classifying various kinds of psychological disorders. The current version of it, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV Edition (DSM-IV), evaluates the patient on five axes or dimensions rather than just one broad aspect of ‘mental disorder’. These dimensions relate to biological, psychological, social and other aspects. The classification scheme officially used in India and elsewhere is the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), which is known as the ICD-10 Classification of Behavioural and Mental Disorders. It was prepared by the World Health Organisation (WHO). For each disorder, a description of the main clinical features or symptoms, and of other associated features including diagnostic guidelines is provided in this scheme.

Concept: Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders
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APPEARS IN

NCERT Class 12 Psychology
Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders
Exercise | Q 5 | Page 87
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