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Name and Explain the Technique Used for Separating Dna Fragments and Making Them Available for Biotechnology Experiments. - Biology

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Name and explain the technique used for separating DNA fragments and making them available for biotechnology experiments.

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Solution

Gel electrophoresis is a technique which is used for separating DNA fragments in a gel on the basis of their electric charge and size.

The process of gel electrophoresis is as follows:

  • The fragments obtained after cutting with restriction enzymes are separated by using gel electrophoresis.

  • Electric field is applied to the agarose gel matrix and the negatively-charged DNA fragments move towards the anode.

  • Fragments separate according to their size by the sieving properties of agarose gel. The smaller the fragment, the farther it moves.

  • Staining dyes such as ethidium bromide, upon exposure to UV radiation, are used to visualise the DNA fragments.

  • DNA fragments are visible as bright orange-coloured bands in the agarose matrix.

  • These bands are cut from the agarose gel and extracted from the gel piece (elution).​
  • DNA fragments are purified and used in constructing recombinant DNAs.
Concept: Process and Principles of Biotechnology
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