Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
The different types of vegetation found in India are:
(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests
(ii) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(iii) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(iv) Montane Forests
(v) Mangrove Forests
A description of the vegetation of high altitudes :
In mountainous regions, there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra regions.
(a) The wet temperate types of forests are found between a height of 1,000 and 2,000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts are predominant in this area.
(b) Between 1,500 and 3,000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar and spruce are found. These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas and places having high altitude in southern and north-east India.
(c) At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common.
(d) At altitudes higher than 3,600 metres, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the alpine vegetation. Silver fir, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests. They get progressively stunted as they approach the snow-line.
(e) Ultimately through shrubs and scrubs, they merge into the alpine grasslands.
(f) At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation.