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Name any two bacterial biofertilizers. - Biology

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Answer in Brief
Short Note

Name any two bacterial biofertilizers.

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Bacterial biofertilizers are :

a. Rhizobium:

  1. Rhizobia are rod-shaped, motile, aerobic, gram-negative, non-spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing bacteria containing Nod genes and Nif genes.
  2. They form symbiotic associations with the roots of leguminous plants.
  3. They bring about nodule formation on the roots and multiply inside the nodule.
  4. They fix atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms, which can be used by plants as nutrients.
  5. For e.g. R. leguminosarum is specific to pea and R. phaseoli to beans.

b. Azotobacter:

  1. It is the important and well-known free-living, nitrogen-fixing, aerobic, non-photosynthetic, non-nodule forming bacterium, intimately associated with roots of grasses and certain plants.
  2. It is used as a bio-fertilizer for all non-leguminous plants especially rice, cotton, vegetables, etc.

c. Azospirillum:

  1. It is a free-living, aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with roots of corn, wheat, and jowar.
  2. It fixes the considerable quantity of nitrogen (20-40kg N/ha) in non–leguminous plants such as cereals, millets, cotton, oilseed, etc.
Concept: Microbes as Biofertilizers
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Balbharati Biology 12th Standard HSC for Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production
Exercises | Q 2.2 | Page 270
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