Most living organisms cannot survive at temperature above 45°C°. How are some microbes able to live in habitats with temperatures exceeding 100°C?
Archaebacteria (Thermophiles) are ancient forms of bacteria found in hot water springs and deep sea hydrothermal vents. They are able to survive in high temperatures (which far exceed 100°C) because their bodies have adapted to such environmental conditions. These organisms contain specialized thermo-resistant enzymes, which carry out metabolic functions that do not get destroyed at such high temperatures.
Micro-organisms of hot.springs and vents (mouth of sea bed volcanoes) are able to survive at the high temperature due to
(i)occurrence of branched chain lipids in their cell membrane that reduce fluidity of cell membranes.
(ii)having minimum amount of free water in their bodies. Removal of water provides resistance to high temperature.