Describe the different methods of asexual reproduction. Give examples.
The various modes of asexual reproduction in plants are as follows:
1) Vegetative propagation: It is the ability of a plant to produce new plants from roots, stems, leaves, and buds. Vegetative propagation is divided into two types.
Natural vegetative propagation: This type of vegetative propagation occurs easily in nature and involves simple vegetative parts. Potato plant sprouting from an eye is a common example.
Artificial vegetative propagation: This type of vegetative propagation is performed manually and generally occurs in laboratory conditions. The formation of a complete plant from a stem cutting of rose is a common example of this method.
2) Budding: It involves the formation of a new individual from a bulb-like projection called a bud. The bud grows and gets detached from the parent to form a new individual. It is commonly observed in yeast.
3) Fragmentation: :It is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism is formed from the fragments of the parent body. It is the only mode of asexual reproduction in Spirogyra.
4) Spore formation : Many non-flowering plants reproduce through spore formation. Spores are tiny cells protected by a thick wall. Fungi such as bread moulds reproduce asexually using this method.
Different methods of asexual reproduction are:
1) Binary Fission: This process takes place in unicellular organisms. Parent cell elongates and gets divided into two identical daughter cells. Each daughter cell grows into an independent adult.
2) Endospore Formation: In this method the spore wall is formed around a bacterial cell to form an endospore. This endospore germinates to form an active bacterium under favourable conditions.
3) Fragmentation: In this process, body of the organism breaks up into two parts. Then each part grows into a new filament thus forming two organisms from a single one.
4) Spore Formation: The spores are tiny spherical unicellular structures protected by thick wall. The spores are stored in a hard outer covering and this is called sporangium.
Under favourable conditions the hard cover breaks and spores spread for germination.
5) Budding: In yeast, new organisms are produced by the bud formation from the parent organism. After growing to full size, the bud gets detached and forms a new independent individual.
6) Vegetative propagation: When vegetative parts of a plant like stems, leaves and root etc., give rise to new ones, it is.called vegetative propagation.