What are the methods of preventing or reducing soil erosion?
The methods of preventing or reducing soil erosion are:
(i) Prevention of deforestation
(ii) Plantation of trees
The methods of preventing soil erosion are :-
(i) Afforestation : Forests reduce erosion as the roots of trees hold the soil in place.
(ii) Shelter belts : Trees planted in lines or hedges around farmland reduce erosion by reducing the speed of the wind.
(iii) Contour ploughing : Farmers plough land so that furrows lie across the natural slope of the land. These furrows trap water and do not allow it to flow down carrying the topsoil.
(iv) Terrace (or step) farming : A terraced hillside is less likely to be eroded than a natural hillside. Here a series of steps formed by horizontal strips supported by walls, catch the descending water. It gives the water sufficient time to percolate into the soil and nourish the crop.
(v) Soil cover : Soil left bare after harvesting a crop is often covered with dried vegetation to prevent erosion. Steep slopes that cannot be ploughed are covered with grass or pasture crops.
(vi) Preventing overgrazing : As the grass has a tendency to bind soil molecules, so even a very little grass on a field prevents erosion of soil. But if the grass is overgrazed, it exposes the soil to erosion.
How are living organisms dependent on the soil? Are organisms that live in water totally independent of soil as a resource?
We know that many human activities lead to increasing levels of pollution of the air, water-bodies and soil. Do you think that isolating these activities to specific and limited areas would help in reducing pollution?