Mention two strategies evolved to prevent self-pollination in flowers.
Self-pollination involves the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil of the same flower. Two strategies that have evolved to prevent self-pollination in flowers are as follows.
(1) In certain plants, the stigma of the flower hasthecapability to prevent the germination of pollen grains and hence, prevent the growth of the pollen tube.It is a genetic mechanism to prevent self-pollination called self- incompatibility. Incompatibility may be between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species. Thus, incompatibility prevents breeding.
(2) In some plants, the gynoecium matures before the androecium or vice-versa. This phenomenon is known as protogyny or protandry respectively. This prevents the pollen from coming in contact with the stigma of the same flower.
Continued self-pollination decreases the vigour and vitality of a particular race. Thus, flowering plants have developed many devices to discourage self-pollination and to encourage cross-pollination.
Dichogamy and self-sterility are.two most common devices that ensure cross-pollination. Dichogamy – Maturation of anther and stigma at different times in a bisexual flower prevent self-pollination.
Self-sterility (or self-incompatibility) – Due to the presence of self-sterile gene in some flowers, pollen grains do not germinate on the stigma of that flowers. e.g.,- tobacco, potato.