Explain the menstrual phase in a human female. State the levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones during this phase.
(a) The menstrual cycle is the reproductive cycle in all primates and begins at puberty (menarche).
- Menses takes place on the 3rd–5th day of the menstrual cycle of 28 days.
- The production of LH is considerably reduced.
- This causes degeneration of the corpus luteum and reduction in the production of progesterone and oestrogen.
- The uterine endometrium breaks down and menstruation starts.
- Cells of the endometrium, secretions, blood and the unfertilised ovum constitute menstrual flow.
During this phase, the levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones are low.
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