Answer the following question in your own word.
What is meant by ‘chromosome’. Explain its types.
Chromosomes are thread-like structures found in the nucleus of all living cells. Chromosomes are divided into four types based on the position of the centromere.
(1) Metacentric chromosomes: In these chromosomes, the centromere is present in the middle, which gives rise to two equal arms.
(2) Sub-metacentric chromosomes: In sub-metacentric chromosomes, the centromere lies slightly away from the middle region. As a result, it has one arm slightly longer than the other.
(3) Acrocentric chromosomes: In acrocentric chromosomes, the centromere is located close to the end of the chromosome. As a result, it has one arm, which is extremely long and the other, which is extremely short.
(4) Telocentric chromosomes: In telocentric chromosomes, the centromere is present at the terminal end. As a result, the chromosome has only one arm.