Just as precise measurements are necessary in science, it is equally important to be able to make rough estimates of quantities using rudimentary ideas and common observations. Think of ways by which you can estimate the following (where an estimate is difficult to obtain, try to get an upper bound on the quantity):-
the number of air molecules in your classroom.
Let the volume of the room be V.
One mole of air at NTP occupies 22.4 l i.e., 22.4 × 10–3 m3 volume.
Number of molecules in one mole = 6.023 × 1023
∴Number of molecules in room of volume V
= 134.915 × 1026 V
= 1.35 × 1028 V
We can determine the volume of the class-room by measuring its length, breadth and height. Consider a class room of size 10 m x 8 m x 4 m.
Volume of this room is 320 m3.
We know that 22.4l or 22.4 x 10-3 m3 of air has 6.02 x 1023 molecules (equal to Avogadro’s number).
Number of molecules of air in the class room =(6.02 x 1023 /22.4 x 10-3 ) x 320 =8.6 x 1027
Which of the following is the most precise device for measuring length:
(a) a vernier callipers with 20 divisions on the sliding scale
(b) a screw gauge of pitch 1 mm and 100 divisions on the circular scale
(c) an optical instrument that can measure length to within a wavelength of light ?
The unit of length convenient on the atomic scale is known as an angstrom and is denoted by `Å: 1Å = 10^(-10)m` . The size of a hydrogen atom is about 0.5Å. what is the total atomic volume in m3 of a mole of hydrogen atoms?
The farthest objects in our Universe discovered by modern astronomers are so distant that light emitted by them takes billions of years to reach the Earth. These objects (known as quasars) have many puzzling features, which have not yet been satisfactorily explained. What is the distance in km of a quasar from which light takes 3.0 billion years to reach us?
Explain this common observation clearly : If you look out of the window of a fast moving train, the nearby trees, houses etc. seem to move rapidly in a direction opposite to the train’s motion, but the distant objects (hill tops, the Moon, the stars etc.) seem to be stationary. (In fact, since you are aware that you are moving, these distant objects seem to move with you)