Long answer type question
Give the importance of conservation in terms of utilitarian reasons.
The reasons for the conservation of biodiversity can be classified into three categories:
i. Narrowly utilitarian reasons:
a. Since ancient times, humans are reaping material benefits from biodiversity.
b. This includes, deriving resources for basic needs such as food, clothes, shelter, or industrial products like resins, tannins, perfume base, etc. or aesthetic use like ornaments and artifacts.
c. The medicinal use of plants and animals is another major factor. It shares 25% of the global medicine market. Around 25000 species are put to use by tribals worldwide as traditional medicines. Several are yet to be explored for their potential as medicinal plants.
d. Nowadays, bioprospecting of economically important species is carried out. Bioprospecting is a systematic search for the development of new sources of chemical compounds, genes, micro-organisms, macro-organisms, and other valuable products from nature.
ii. Broadly utilitarian reasons:
a. Animals play a crucial role in pollination and seed dispersal.
b. Amazon forest is estimated to produce 20% of the total oxygen of Earth’s atmosphere. We need to consider the recreational use of biodiversity.
c. Devastating fires in the amazon rainforest were reported in August 2019. Such fires are mainly caused in Brazil and are more manmade than natural. The slash and burn policy of locals to reclaim forestland has caused a towering 906000 hectares of forest devastation, only in the year 2019.