Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 11

List the characteristics of Gibbs free energy. - Chemistry

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Answer in Brief

List the characteristics of Gibbs free energy.

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Solution

Characteristics of Gibbs free energy:

1. Gibbs free energy is defined as the part of the total energy of a system that can be converted (or) available for conversion into work.

G = H – TS ………..(1)

Where H = enthalpy, T = temperature and S = entropy

2. G is a state function and is a single value function.

3. G is an extensive property, whereas ∆G becomes intensive property for a closed system. Both G and ∆G values correspond to the system only.

4. ∆G gives criteria for spontaneity at constant pressure and temperature.

  • If ∆G is negative (∆G < O), the process is spontaneous.
  • If ∆G is positive (∆G > O), the process is non-spontaneous.
  • If ∆G is zero (AG = O), the process is equilibrium.

5. For any system at constant pressure and temperature,

∆G = ∆H – T∆S ……….. (2)

We know AH = ∆U + P∆V

∆G = ∆U + P∆V – T∆S ………(3)

6. For the first law of thermodynamics, ∆U = q + w

∆G = q + w + P∆V – T∆S …………(4)

For the second law of thermodynamics, ∆S = `"q"/"T"`

∆G = q + w + P∆V – T`"q"/"T"`

∆G = w + P∆V …………(5)

∆G = – w – P∆V ……….(6)

7. – P∆V represent the work done due to expansion against constant external pressure. Therefore, it is clear that the decrease in free energy (– ∆G) accompanying a process taking place at constant temperature and pressure is equal to the maximum work obtainable from the system other than the work of expansion.

8. Unit of Gibb’s free energy is J mol–1

Concept: Gibbs Free Energy (G)
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Chapter 7: Thermodynamics - Evaluation [Page 225]

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Tamil Nadu Board Samacheer Kalvi Class 11th Chemistry Volume 1 and 2 Answers Guide
Chapter 7 Thermodynamics
Evaluation | Q II. 27. | Page 225
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