List any four techniques where the principle of ex-situ conservation of biodiversity has been employed.
Ex situ conservation is the conservation of selected rare plants or animals in places outside their natural homes. Ex situ conservation of biodiversity has been employed in
(i) Gene banks: These are the institutes which maintain stocks of viable seeds, live growing plants, tissue culture and frozen germplasm with the whole range of genetic variability.
(ii) Cryopreservation: Cryopreservation can maintain tissue culture, embryos, gametes, animal cells or tissues. Endangered organisms are being cryopreserved so that they can be revived to help in conservation.
(iii) Orchards: Plants with recalcitrant seeds are grown in orchards where all possible strains and varieties are maintained.
(iv) Tissue culture: It is carried out through callus formation, embryoids, pollen grain culture and shoot tip culture in plants which are either seedless, have recalcitrant seeds, variable seed progeny or where clones are to be maintained.
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