Life is a Gift to Be Used Every Day, Not to Be Smothered and Hidden Away, It Isn’T a Thing to Be Stored in the Chest Where You Gather Your Keepsakes and Treasure Your Best; - English


Life is a gift to be used every day,
Not to be smothered and hidden away,
It isn’t a thing to be stored in the chest
Where you gather your keepsakes and treasure your best;
It isn’t a joy to be sipped now and then
And promptly put back in a dark place again

Life is a gift that the humblest may boast of
And one that the humblest may well make the most of
Get out and live it each hour of the day,
Wear it and use it as much as you may,
Don’t keep it in niches and corners and grooves,
You’ll find that in service its beauty improves.

(1) What do we treasure in a chest?
(2) How does the poet went us to use the gift of life?
(3) Do you agree that life should be measured un deeds and not in years? Why?
(4) Which words in the poem mean the following :
     (a) Kept from developing
     (b) Hollow places in a wall
(5) Life is a gift to be used every day. [Name and explain the figure of speech]




(1) We treasure our keepsakes and things that we consider our best in life in a chest.
(2) The poet wants us to use the gift of life every day.
(3) Yes, I do agree that life should be measured in deeds and not years, because a life devoid of great deeds does not amount to anything and is insignificant.
(4) (a) The word ‘smothered’ means kept from developing.
(b) The word ‘niches’ means hollow places in a wall.
(5) Life is a gift to be used every day.
The figure of speech used in the above line is metaphor. Life is compared directly to a gift.

Concept: Reading Skills
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
2010-2011 (March)



B1. Select
Fill in the blanks choosing the correct alternatives from those given in the bracket:
(i) The author was inspired and motivated to read ............................................ by the time she was eleven.
[Shakespeare, Chaucer, G.B. Shaw]

(ii) Every lesson .......................... ......... took was spiced with half a dozen or more anecdotes.
[Mrs. Rowlands, Sister Monica, Mr. A.N. Patil]

(iii) The teachers helped the narrator to become ..................................... . .
[confident, happy, independent]

(iv) Mrs. Cynthia Nesamani and Sister Monica gave .......................................... to the narrator.
[freedom to do what he wanted, advice to do something, instructions to produce better results]

In a way, one of the greatest gifts any teacher can give a student, I think, is to inculcate a curiosity to learn.
I've been incredibly lucky to have at least one such teacher at every stage in my life. The first was Mrs. Rowlands who taught me in primary school. She taught me to read without ever pushing me. She made me want to read more by giving 'me some of the most interesting children's books available. And although I still love to go back to those books from time to time, it was only because of her that I was able to read Shakespeare by the time I was ten, and Chaucer a year later.
In later years, it was Mr. A.N. Patil, my Marathi and Hindi Teacher who made a huge impression on me. Every lesson he took, was spiced with half a dozen or more anecdotes from a wide variety of subjects: among them history, politics, religion and sociology. I was, and still am in awe of his knowledge, which despite rather desperate attempts, I doubt I'll ever be able to match.
There have also been other teachers who helped me to try to become independent: to think and act for myself using my own judgement, which to my mind has been just as, if not more important, than actually learning anything.
After all, it's much too easy to become a completely useless repository of facts and little else.
Two teachers whom I remember in particular are Mrs. Cynthia Nesamani and Sister Monica, both taught me in school. The former, by and large, gave me a free rein to do what I wanted to do. I, being one of those people who dislike instructions, she helped me to produce much better results than I'd have otherwise done.

Read the extract and complete the following:
The teacher can
(i) .............
(ii) ..............
(iii )..............

B3. Similar word
Look at the following sentences arid pick the word having similar meaning to the given word and rewrite:
(i) Spiced His conversation is always with a lot of humour. (made interesting, garnished, flavoured)
(ii) Repository
The library should not merely be a ................ of books. (store-house, reservoir, tank)
(iii) Inculcate
It is the responsibility of the parents and teachers to .......values in the child's formative years. (imbibe, give, show)
(iv) Incredibly
I have been .. lucky to have at least one such teacher at every stage in my life. (importantly, unbelievably, beautifully)

B4. Language study
(i) There have also been other teachers. They have helped me to try to become
independent. (Combine using 'who')
(ii) It was only because of her that I was able-to read Shakespeare.
(Rewrite beginning with: If it was not for her, ). 

B.5 Out motivators
Look at the following table and complete it by presenting your own views

Personalities Influence on your life
(i) Teachers  
(ii) Parents  
(iii) Relatives  
(iv) Friends  



A1. True or False
State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) A new research suggests that eating healthy food and getting proper sleep helps children to succeed in school.
(ii) Kids in the age group of 6-12 years should get an average sleep of little less than 7 hours.
(iii) Kids should start their day with yogurt, fruits and veggies.
(iv) Children should have consistent sleeping habit.

A new research suggests that eating healthy food and getting proper sleep can help children succeed in school. According to research, when kids go to school without eating breakfast, their cognitive function can be affected.
According to study, kids should start the day with fruits, proteins and whole grains and they should avoid sugary cereals because they cause a sugar high. If the kids do need to eat something prior to dinner, parents should offer healthy choices like yogurt, fruits and veggies or baked chips. Children have also been advised to drink water instead of soda as-it lacks nutritional value. Moreover, research suggests that children need a good night's sleep for theiroverall school performance. It is said that. lack of sleep can lead to problems with attention and memory in the classroom, affect impulse control and mood regulation lead to.
anxiety and even depression.
While kids aged 6-12 years should get nine hours sleep nightly, adolescents from the age of 13 to 18 years should get an average sleep of little more than seven hours per night. However, the research suggests that catching up on lost sleep on the weekend can make matters worse and recommended a consistent bedtime seven days a week.

A2. Find
Fill in the blocks with the following given in the passage:

(i) Two things to be avoided by children:

(ii) Lack of sleep due to mood regulation leads to:

A3. Select
Select the correct word from the brackets and complete the statements given below:
(anxiety, consistent, impulse, attention)
(i) Last minutes study causes......... to the students.
(ii) Stress affects the.............. for a quick action.
(iii) Saina has shown ........... improvement in her performance.
(iv) Students should pay class.

A4. Language study
(i) Pick out anyone sentence from the passage where a modal auxiliary indicating advice is used.
(ii) Pick out the correct conjunctions from the given sentences: 
(a) Kids should avoid sugary cereals because they cause a sugar high.
(b) It is said that lack of sleep can lead to problems.

A5. Personal response
We should eat healthy food. Explain..

India, my India, where the first human eyes awoke to heavenly light! All Asia’s holy place of pilgrimage, great Motherland of might! World – mother, first giver to humankind of philosophy and sacred lore, knowledge thou gav’st to an, God – love, works, art, religion’s opened door.
O even with all that grandeur dwarfed or turned and can vaunt thy mighty name?
Before us still there floats the idea of those splendid days of gold; a new world in our vision wakes, Love’s India we shall rise to mould. India, my India, who dare call thee a thing for pity’s grace today? Mother of wisdom, worship, works nurse of the spirit inward ray!

(1) The poem is a ……………………
    (a) Praise
    (b) Prayer
    (c) Story in the form of poem
    (d) Song of condolence [Choose the correct alternative]
(2) What has India given to the world?
(3) How does the poet visualize New India?
(4) Give the rhyme scheme of the first four lines.
(5) Name and explain the figure of speech that dominates the poem.

We sang our school fight song dozens of times – en route to Arlington National cemetery, and even on an afternoon cruise down the Potomac River. We visited the Lincoln Memorial twice, once in day – light, the second time at dusk. My classmates and I fell silent as we walked in the shadows of those 36 marble columns, one for every state in the Union that Lincoln laboured to preserve. I stood next to Frank at the base of the 19 foot seated statue. Spotlights made the white Georgian marble seem to glow. Together we read famous words from Lincoln’s speech at Gettysburg remembering the most bloody battle in the war between the status : “………….we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom………..”
As Frank motioned me into place to take my picture, I took one last look at Lincoln’s face. He seemed alive and so terribly sad.
The next morning I understand a little better why he wasn’t smiling. “Clifton,” a chaperone said, “could I see you for a moment?”

(1) When did the boys visit Lincoln Memorial?
(2) What made the Georgian marble glow?
(3) What did the words: “………. We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom …………” remind them?
(4) Do you believe in building memorials? What kind should they be, if your answer is ‘yes’? If no, give reasons why you do not believe in memorials?

Write a character sketch of Mrs. Van Daan.

What were Helen’s memories of Radcliffe?

How did the air raids disrupt the Dutch public life?

It was her determination that helped Helen Keller get admission to Radcliffe College. Comment.

Read the passage carefully.

1. I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

2. Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that 'the enemy' wouldn't discover me.

3. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home ‒ that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn't  let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

4. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn't like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear 'the right clothes' and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

5. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is  being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.

(b) Make a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.

Answer any six of the following questions in 3040 words:

(a) Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless?

(b) Why did the peddler derive pleasure from his idea of the world as a rattrap?

(c) How is Mukesh different from the other bangle makers of Firozabad?

(d) What tempted Franz to stay away from school?

(e) Why did the maharaja ban tiger hunting in the state?

(f) How was the skunk's story different from the other stories narrated by Jack?

(g) Which words of her brother made a deep impression on Bama?

What were Watson's observations on the stick left behind by Dr. Mortimer? How far did Sherlock Holmes prove him wrong? (in about 125 words)

Who was Selden? Why was he on the moor?

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. Air pollution is an issue which concerns us all alike. One can willingly choose or reject a food, a drink or a life comfort, but unfortunately there is little choice for the air we breathe. All, what is there in the air is inhaled by one and all living in those surroundings.

 2. Air pollutant is defined as a substance which is present while normally it is not there or present in an amount exceeding the normal concentrations. It could either be gaseous or a particulate matter. The important and harmful polluting gases are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. The common particulate pollutants are the dusts of various inorganic or organic origins. Although we often talk of the outdoor air pollutions caused by industrial and vehicular exhausts, the indoor pollution may prove to be as or a more important cause of health problems.

 3. Recognition of air pollution is relatively recent. It is not uncommon to experience a feeling of 'suffocation' in a closed environment. It is often ascribed to the lack of oxygen. Fortunately, however, the composition of air is remarkably constant all over the world. There is about 79 per cent nitrogen and 21 per cent oxygen in the air − the other gases forming a very small fraction. It is true that carbon dioxide exhaled out of lungs may accumulate in a closed and over-crowded place. But such an increase is usually small and temporary unless the room is really air-tight. Exposure to poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide may occur in a closed room, heated by burning coal inside. This may also prove to be fatal.

 4. What is more common in a poorly ventilated home is a vague constellation of symptoms described as the sick-building syndrome. It is characterized by a general feeling of malaise, head-ache, dizziness and irritation of mucous membranes. It may also be accompanied by nausea, itching, aches, pains and depression. Sick building syndrome is getting commoner in big cities with the small houses, which are generally over-furnished. Some of the important pollutants whose indoor concentrations exceed those of the outdoors include gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and organic substances like spores, formaldehydes, hydrocarbon aerosols and allergens. The sources are attributed to a variety of construction materials, insulations, furnishings, adhesives, cosmetics, house dusts, fungi and other indoor products.

 5. By-products of fuel combustion are important in houses with indoor kitchens. It is not only the brining of dried dung and fuelwood which is responsible, but also kerosene and liquid petroleum gas. Oxides of both nitrogen and sulphur are released from their combustion.

 6. Smoking of tobacco in the closed environment is an important source of indoor pollution. It may not be high quantitatively, but significantly hazardous for health. It is because of the fact that there are over 3000 chemical constituents in tobacco smoke, which have been identified. These are harmful for human health.

 7. Micro-organisms and allergens are of special significance in the causation and spread of diseases. Most of the infective illnesses may involve more persons of a family living in common indoor environment. These include viral and bacterial diseases like tuberculosis.

 8. Besides infections, allergic and hypersensitivity disorders are spreading fast. Although asthma is the most common form of respiratory allergic disorders, pneumonias are not uncommon, but more persistent and serious. These are attributed to exposures to allergens from various fungi, molds, hay and other organic materials. Indoor air ventilation systems, coolers, air-conditioners, dampness, decay, pet animals, production or handling of the causative items are responsible for these hypersensitivity − diseases.

 9. Obviously, the spectrum of pollution is very wide and our options are limited. Indoor pollution may be handled relatively easily by an individual. Moreover, the good work must start from one’s own house

(Extracted from the Tribune)

 (a) (i) What is an air pollutant? (1)

(ii) In what forms are the air pollutants present? (2)

(iii) Why do we feel suffocated in a closed environment? (1)

(iv) What is sick building syndrome? How is it increasing? (2)

(v) How is indoor smoking very hazardous? (1)

(vi) How can one overcome the dangers of indoor air pollution? (2)

(b) Find the words from the above passage which mean the same as the following: (3)

(i) giddiness (para 4)

(ii) constant (para 8)

(iii) humidity (para 8)

Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?

(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?

(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?

Answer any three of the following questions in 30-40 words each:

(a) What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?

(b) Why does Asokamitran call Subbu, ‘a charitable and improvident man’?

(c) How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimmer?

(d) Why did Sophie like her brother, Geoff more than any other person?

Answer the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why do you think the booking clerk refused to accept the money? Why did the narrator get out so fast?

(b) Why could the Russian research vessel, ‘The Akademik Shokaskiy’ not move any further? What did the captain decide then?

(c) What sort of hunts did the Maharaja offer to organize for the high-ranking British officer? What trait of the officer does it reveal?

(d) What did Jo want the wizard to do when Mommy Skunk approached him?

Anne's relationship with her mother was never simple. What created the tension and discord? Why

Anne's father was close to her. What did she like about him? Why?

How did a story book, 'Little Lord Fauntleroy' open a window of knowledge to Helen and help to shape her career?

Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

Write a character sketch of Bishop Brooks as he appears in Helen Keller's − The Story of My Life.

Anne describes herself as a 'little bundle of contradictions'. Why? Explain in your own words.

How did Helen benefit when Dr. Graham Bell accompanied her to the World Fair?

Answer the following question in 120-150 words:    

How does Dr. Cuss's encounter with Griffin end in a disaster? 

Answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each:

(a) How could the peddler enter the forge without being noticed by the blacksmith?

(b) At Champaran what did the British landlords want from the sharecroppers?

(c) How does the poet show the futility of Aunt Jennifer's efforts?

(d) Stephen Spender in his poem, 'An elementary School Classroom in a Slum' paints a dismal picture of poverty. Comment.

(e) How did Evans have the last laugh at the Governor?

(f) How did the General plan to get rid of the American POW?

Answer any four of the following in 30 − 40 words each :

(a) What does Saheb look for in the garbage dumps?

(b) How was Gandhi treated at Rajendra Prasad's house?

(c) Why does one feel 'a sudden strangeness' on counting to twelve and keeping quiet?

(d) Mention any two things which cause pain and suffering. (A Thing of Beauty)

(e) When was the Tiger King in danger of losing his throne?

(f) What role did the American professor play in bringing Hana and Sadao together?

Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

If you do not get lowered in your own eyes
While you raise yourself in those of others,
If you do not give in to gossips and lies
Rather heed them not, saying, 'who bothers?'
You may be the person I am looking for.
If you crave not for praise when you win
And look not for sympathy while you lose,
If cheers let not your head toss or spin
And after a set-back, you offer no excuse,
You may be the person I and looking for.

(1) What should be your reaction towards gossips and lies?
(2) Who are your role models? Why?
(3) Give the rhyming pairs of words from the first stanza.
(4) Which line is repeated in this extract and what is its effect?

Read the follow ing extract and answer the questions given below:

Not gold but only men can make
A people great and strong;
Men who for truth and honor's sake
Stand fast and suffer long.

Brave men who work while others sleep,
Who dare while others fly...

They build a nation's pillars deep
And lift them to the sky.

(1) What makes a nation strong?
(2) According to you, what makes India a strong and powerful nation?.
(3) Write down the rhyme scheme used in the extract.
(4) What does the phrase 'others fly ... ' mean?

Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

How do you know
Peace is a woman?
 I know, for
I met her yesterday
on my winding way 
to the world's fare.
She had such a wonderful face
just like a golden flower faded
before her prime.

(1) How does the poet describe the face of peace?
(2) Do you think there is a way out of the war-ridden world? What is it?.
(3) Name and explain the figure of speech in the following line:
"I met her yesterday 
on my winding way."
(4) The poet asks the question and herself answers it. What effect does it create in the extract?

Complete the flow-chart : 

Complete the following table :

(i) The interest of Maharashtra and that of India should be one for the progress of Maharashtra state, because ................


Complete the following statements :

(ii) Maharashtra depends on India, because ................


Read the following extract and then do all the activities that follow :

I rain into a stranger as he passed by
“Oh, excuse me please” was my reply.
He said, “please excuse me too; wasn't even watching for you.”
We were very polite, this stranger and I.
We went on out way and we said good-bye.
But at home a different story is told.
How we treat out loved ones, young and old.
Later that day, cooking the evening meal,
My daughter stood beside me very still.
When I turned, I nearly knoked her down.
“Move out of the way,” I said with a frown.
She walked away, her little heart broken.
I didn't realize how harshly I'd spoken.
While I lay awake in bed,
God's still small voice came to me and said,
“While Dealing with a stranger, common courtesy you use,
But children you love, you seem to abuse.”

A1. Order- 
The incidents narrated in the extract are arranged in a jumbled manner here, Rearrange them in a proper order as they occur in the extract:
(i) The poet and the stranger went on their way saying good-bye.
(ii) Seeking excuse politely from the stranger, she went her way.
(iii) The poet ran into a stranger on the road.
(iv) The poet yelled at her daughter.

A2. Poetic device:
Make a list of rhyming pairs from the second stanza and note down the rhyme scheme of the same stanza.

A3. Personal Response:
Understanding and politeness are the essentials of out everyday life. Explain your views in brief.

A4. Creativity -
Frame two poetic lines on the following situation using a rhyming pattern with the help of clues given:
“While introducing great personalities, we praise them highly and talk about their qualities, but while speaking
about our friends we may not follow the same trend.”
While introducing great personalities, — a
------------------------------------ — a
But while speaking about our friends, — b
------------------------------------ — b

Read the extract and do the activities that follow:
The duke senior and his follower were sitting down to a meal one day when Orlando rushed out from among the trees, his sword in his hand. ‘Stop, and cat no more!’ he cried. The Duke and his friends asked him what he wanted.
‘Food,’ said Orlando. ‘I am almost dying of hunger’. They asked him to sit down and eat, but he would not do so. He told them that his old servant was in the woods, dying of hunger. ‘I will not eat a bite until he has been fed,’ Orlando said.
So the good Duke and his followers helped him to bring Adam to their hiding-place, and Orlando and the old man were fed and taken care of. When the Duke learned that Orlando was a son of his old friend sir Rowland de Boys, he welcomed him gladly to his forest court.
Orlando lived happily with the Duke and his friends, but he had not forgotten the lovely Rosalind. She was always in his thoughts andevery day he wrote poetry about her pinning it on the trees in the forest. ‘These trees shall be my books,’ he said, ‘so that everyone who looks in the forest will be able to read how sweet and good Rosalind is’.
Rosalind and Celia found some of these poems pinned on the trees. At first they were puzzled, wondering who could have written them; but one day Celia came in from a walk with the news that she had seen Orlando sleeping under a tree, and she and Rosalind guessed that he must be the poet. Rosalind was happy to think that Orlando had not forggoten her, because she loved him as much as he loved her.

A1. Complete - (2)
Complete the following sentences:
(i) Rosalind was happy to think _______
(ii) The Duke and his followers helped Orlando to bring _________
(iii) Orlando pinned the poems written about Rosalind on ______
(iv) When the Duke cam to know that Orlando was a son of his old friend, he _________

A2. Write a gist: (2)
Write a gist of the above given extract in about 50 words.

After the convocation, Mrs. Mini, Rahul’s mother and Rahul have a conversation. Write the conversation and present it to the class in groups of three.

In ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’ how did the Franks and others celebrate two festivals, Hanukkah and St.  Nicholas Day in the Annexe ? 

Describe the role of Mr. Keith in the life of Helen in ‘The Story of My Life’. 

Chimps making their own fishing rods is an indication that 

Orangutans use big leaves during a downpour because

Big male elephants throw logs at electric fences because 

Why are animals considered as intelligent as humans ? 

What do elephants do to prevent water from evaporating ? 

What inference can you draw from the action of the female gorilla described in para 2 ? 

To what end have humans used their superior intelligence ?

How is the social life at Raveloe different from that at Lantern Yard ? 

Attempt a character sketch of Squire Cass. 

Dolly Winthrop has a very noble nature. Comment.

Attempt a character sketch of Mrs. Hall.

When and how did the people of Iping grow suspicious of the invisible man ? 

Read the following extract carefully and complete the activities given below :
A1 Complete the following : 
Books were found on the _____________ and ____________.
(ii) The tales are described as ______________ and __________.


Have you forgotten? Don't you know?
We'll say it very loud and slow:
THEY ... USED ... TO ... READ! They'd READ and READ,
AND READ and READ, and then proceed
To READ some more. Great Scott! Gadzooks!
One-half of their lives was reading books!
The nursery shelves held books galore!
Books cluttered up the nursery floor!
And in the bedroom, by the bed,
More books were waiting to be read!
Such wondrous, fine, fantastic tales
Of dragons, gypsies, queens, and whales
And treasure isles, and distant shores
Where smugglers rowed with muffled oars,
And pirates wearing purple pants,
And sailing ships and elephants,
And cannibals crouching 'round the pot,
Stirring away at something hot.
(It smells so good, what can it be?
Good gracious, it's Penelope.)
A2  What kind of books does the poet mention?

A3  Poetic Device :
THEY ... USED ... TO ... READ! They'd READ and READ,
AND READ and READ, and then proceed
Which words are repeated?

The figure of speech is _______________

Read the following extract of the poem and complete the activities given below :

B1 State which of the following statements are

True or False :
(i) The elderly are nearest to our own exalted personality.
(ii) The elderly are those persons whose growth is stunted.
(iii) We should know our elderly people well, in order to receive guidance.
(iv) The elderly hold on to the frivolous aspects of life.

“Oh, the value of the elderly! How could anyone not know?
They hold so many keys, so many things they can show.
We all will read the other side this I firmly believe
And the elderly are closest oh what clues we could retrieve.
For their characters are closest to how we’ll be on high.
They are the ones most developed, you can see it if you try.
They’ve let go of the frivolous and kept things that are dear.
The memories of so sweet, of loved ones that were near.
As a nation, we are missing our greatest true resource,
To get to know our elders and let them guide our course”.
B2 Give Reason
Elderly people should be around us. Justify.
B3  Rhyme Scheme
The rhyme scheme for the first four lines is _______
(a) abab
(b) abb
(c) abba

Read the following passage and do the activities:
A1 True or False:
Rewrite the following statements and state whether they are ‘true’ or ‘false’.
(i) Mashelkar’s mother did menial work to bring him up.
(ii) Mashelkar’s father died when he was twelve.
(iii) Mashelkar was born in a very rich family.
(iv) Tatas added much value to Mashelkar’s life. 

I start with my greatest guru-my mother. I was born in a very poor family and my father died when I was six. We moved to Mumbai and my mother did menial work to bring me up. Two meals a day was a tough challenge. I studied under street lights and I walked barefoot until, I think, I was twelve. I remember when I passed the seventh standard and I wanted to go into the eighth standard, our poverty was such that even to secure 21 rupees for secondary school admission became a big challenge. We had to borrow from a lady, who was a housemaid in Chaupati in Mumbai. That was the tough life I had.

In fact, I remember, my passing the SSC Examination-i.e. 11th standard. Those days it used to be not 10th standard or 12th standard but 11th standard. I stood 11th among 1,35,000 but I was about to leave higher education and find a job. What helped me was the scholarship by Sir Dorab Tata Trust. It was just 60 rupees per month and would you believe that 60 rupees per month from Tatas added so much value to my life that I have been able to stand here today before you to speak to you.

 I am on the Board of Tatas now and it is very interesting that the same Bombay House where I used to go to collect that 60 rupees per month now one goes and sits there like a Director on the Board of Tata Motors. The turn that these 40 years have taken is very interesting. It has all been possible because of the chance I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother. She gave me the values of my life. She was one of the noblest parents I have met in my life.

So, my greatest guru was my mother. My second guru was Principal Bhave, about whom I made a mention earlier. He taught us Physics. Because it was a poor school, I remember, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of Science. 

A2  Complete: 
 Complete the following sentences and write:
(i) Mashelkar was inspired by his greatest guru _______
(ii) Mashelkar studied under _______
(iii) Principal Bhave taught _______
(iv) The scholarship by _______ Trust helped him in higher education. 

A3 Find the meaning:
Choose the appropriate meaning of the underlined words from the given alternatives:
We moved to Mumbai and my mother did menial work.
(a) skilled
(b) hard
(c) unskilled
(d) of low status

(ii) Because it was a poor school, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of science.
(a) do a cheap experiment
(b) introduce new things
(c) avoid
(d) try hard

(iii) I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother.
(a) firm saying
(b) being inspired
(c) being inspected
(d) being instigated 

(iv) That was the tough life I had.
(a) difficult
(b) soft
(c) cheap
(d) simple 

A4  Match:
Match the following sentences with their tags: 

  'A'   'B'
(i) I stood 11th 
 among 1,35,000 
(a) aren’t I? 
(ii) I am on the Board of Tatas  (b)  didn’t we? 
(iii) It was a poor school  (c) didn’t I? 
(iv) We moved to Mumbai  (d)  wasn’t it? 

A5  Personal Response: 
 “Mother is the greatest Guru.” Discuss.

Read the following extract and complete the activities given below : 
A1  Compare the old and new house and complete the table : 

Points Old House New House
Surrounding razzle-dazzle
Size of the house big

I was thirteen, the year we moved to the Cantonment at Allahabad. In stark contrast to the razzle-dazzle of the city’s commercial areas like Katra and Chowk, the Cantonment was a quiet, orderly place with broad tree-lined roads that still carried the names of long-dead Britishers. Our bungalow was on a sleepy by-lane called MacPherson Road. When we first saw it, my brothers and I were delighted. It was by far the biggest house we had ever lived in. The task of furnishing those huge, echoing rooms daunted mother.

“Is a slightly smaller house not available?” she asked father, “We do not have enough curtains for this place. And the furniture seems a little inadequate. Why did they have to plan the kitchen at such a distance from the dining-room? It is like doing a route march. And who is going to help me keep this place clean and dusted?”
 Her misgivings and objections were undoubtedly valid. But, seeing our crestfallen faces, she sighed and gave in. We made extravagant promises to help in the household chores. Keep our rooms tidy. Put away our toys and books. She smiled with amused disbelief, her mind already working out how many meters of curtain-cloth would be needed and so on. 

A2  Complete :
Complete the following list of objections that the mother had with the new house :
(i) Inadequate _______ 
(ii) Do not have _______
(iii) Kitchen at a distance from _______
(iv) A very big _______ 

A3 Personal response:
Do you agree with the objections raised by the mother? Explain. 

Read the following passage carefully and complete the activities given below :
A.1) Complete the web :
Write the words from the passage on the web. 

          We saw small bits of grass peeping through the small cracks in concrete pavement. It left us thinking: however impossible things may look, there is always an opening…………
             We saw a tree bare of all leaves in the cold winter months. We thought its chapter was over. But three months passed, spring set in and the tree was back to its green majesty once again, full of leaves, flowers, birds, and life. What if we too had the conviction that, however difficult things are right now, it will not remain so forever. Remember, this too shall pass.
             We saw an army of ants lugging a fly which was at least ten times the ant’s size. The ants organized themselves around the fly, lifted it on frail feelers and carried it to quite a distance. Their teamwork and perseverance were impressive. What if we too are consistent, organized, focused ……… Spider webs are delicate, yet very strong. A rainbow colors the entire sky. Oysters take in a grain of sand they open up with a pearl. Innumerable stars shine across the infinite sky. Clouds take new shapes with every passing moment. The wind makes trees dance with unhindered passion. Water, without a hint of ego, changes its form according to the dictates of the sun and the wind. When we see a caterpillar turn into a butterfly, a flower turns into a fruit, we experience the alchemy of nature ………. We touch it and become gold ourselves.

A.2)  Finding meanings :
Write what you mean by :
(i) _______ there is always an opening.
(ii) _______ its chapter was over.
(iii) _______ the tree was back to its green majesty.
(iv) _______ this too shall pass. 

A.3) Matching :
Match the words in Column ‘A’ with their synonyms in Column ‘B’: 

  Column 'A'   Column'B"
(i) conviction  (a) strong feeling 
(ii) alchemy (b) delicate
(iii) frail  (c) mysterious/magical power 
(iv) passion  (d) strong belief 

A.4) Language study : 
Rewrite the sentence using the correct question tag given in the brackets :
Water changes its form. (does it?, do it?, do they?, doesn’t it)
(ii) However impossible things may look, there is always an opening. (Rewrite using ‘but’) 

A.5)  Personal Response :
Nature is the best teacher. Explain. 

Read the following passage carefully and do the given activities:
A.1) True or False:

Write the statements and state whether they are true or false:
Those who choose to live well must help others.
If neighbors grow inferior corn, cross-pollination will steadily improve the quality.
The farmer grew award-winning corn.
The reporter discovered that the farmer didn’t share his seed corn with his neighbors. 

             There once was a farmer who grew award-winning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it. The reporter discovered that the farmer shared his sweet corn with his neighbors. “How can you afford to share your best seed corn with your neighbors when they are entering corn in competition with yours each year?” the reporter asked. 
             “Why sir”, said the farmer, “didn’t you know? The wind picks up pollen from the ripening corn and swirls it from field to field. If my neighbors grow inferior corn, cross-pollination will steadily degrade the quality of my corn. If I am to grow good corn, I must help my neighbors grow good corn.” He is very much aware of the connectedness of life. His corn cannot improve unless his neighbor's corn also improves. So it is with our lives. Those who choose to live in peace must help their neighbors to live in peace. Those who choose to live well must help others to live well, for the value of a life is measured by the lives it touches.
              The lesson for each of us is this: if we are to grow good corn, we must help our neighbors grow good corn. 

A.2) Consequences:
Write the consequences:
(i) The farmer shares the corn. 
(ii) The farmer doesn’t share the corn. 

A.3) Antonyms:
Find out the words opposite in meaning from the passage: 
superior x _______ 
lost x _______ 
improve x _______ 
inconstantly x _______ 

A.4)  Language study:
We must help our neighbors. (Replace the modal auxiliary showing advice). 
(ii) The wind picks up pollen from ripening corn and swirls it field to field. (Use “not only…….. but also” and rewrite)

A.5)  Personal Response: 
What do you learn from the story? Suggest a suitable title.

Answer the following question in 30-40 words.
“The sight of the food maddened him.” What does this suggest? (His First Fight)

Attempt the following question in 100 – 150 words.
What do you think about Anne’s talent for writing essays which she wrote convincingly when punished by the teacher?

Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
What is the main theme of 'The Diary of a Young Girl'?

Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
"The best and most beautiful things in the world can't be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart." Justify the famous quote of Helen Keller.

Answer the following question in 150-200 words:
Attempt a character sketch of Mr. Gilman.

Answer the following question in 150-200 words: 
Why did Anne like her father more than she liked her mother?

Would you agree that the author’s grandmother was a person strong in character? If yes, give instances that show this.

Have you known someone like the author’s grandmother? Do you feel the same sense of loss with regard to someone whom you have loved and lost?

Notice the following uses of the word ‘tell’ in the text.

1. Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary.

2. I would tell her English words and little things about Western science and learning.

3. At her age, one could never tell.

4. She told us that her end was near.

Given below are four different senses of the word ‘tell’. Match the meanings to the uses listed above.

1. make something known to someone in spoken or written words

2. count while reciting

3. be sure

4. give information to somebody

What has not changed over the years? Does this suggest something to you?

Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
careered down

Discuss in groups of four.
The sensitive behaviour of hill-folk.

Briefly comment on:
The purpose of the author’s journey to Mount Kailash.

Briefly comment on:
The author’s physical condition in Darchen.

Briefly comment on:
The author’s meeting with Norbu.

Discuss in groups of four.
The accounts of exotic places in legends and the reality.

Guess the meaning of the following word:
In which language are these word found? 

Group related points.

Read the text below and summarise it.

Green Sahara

The Great Desert Where Hippos Once Wallowed

The Sahara sets a standard for dry land. It’s the world’s largest desert. Relative humidity can drop into the low single digits. There are places where it rains only about once a century. There are people who reach the end of their lives without ever seeing water come from the sky.

Yet beneath the Sahara are vast aquifers of fresh water, enough liquid to fill a small sea. It is fossil water, a treasure laid down in prehistoric times, some of it possibly a million years old. Just 6,000 years ago, the Sahara was a much different place.

It was green. Prehistoric rock art in the Sahara shows something surprising: hippopotamuses, which need year-round water.

“We don’t have much evidence of a tropical paradise out there, but we had something perfectly liveable,” says Jennifer Smith, a geologist at Washington University in St Louis.

The green Sahara was the product of the migration of the paleo-monsoon. In the same way that ice ages come and go, so too do monsoons migrate north and south. The dynamics of earth’s motion are responsible. The tilt of the earth’s axis varies in a regular cycle — sometimes the planet is more tilted towards the sun, sometimes less so. The axis also wobbles like a spinning top. The date of the earth’s perihelion — its closest approach to the sun — varies in cycle as well.

At times when the Northern Hemisphere tilts sharply towards the sun and the planet makes its closest approach, the increased blast of sunlight during the north’s summer months can cause the African monsoon (which currently occurs between the Equator and roughly 17°N latitude) to shift to the north as it did 10,000 years ago, inundating North Africa.

Around 5,000 years ago the monsoon shifted dramatically southward again. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Sahara discovered that their relatively green surroundings were undergoing something worse than a drought (and perhaps they migrated towards the Nile Valley, where Egyptian culture began to flourish at around the same time).

“We’re learning, and only in recent years, that some climate changes in the past have been as rapid as anything underway today,” says Robert Giegengack, a University of Pennsylvania geologist.

As the land dried out and vegetation decreased, the soil lost its ability to hold water when it did rain. Fewer clouds formed from evaporation. When it rained, the water washed away and evaporated quickly. There was a kind of runaway drying effect. By 4,000 years ago the Sahara had become what it is today.

No one knows how human-driven climate change may alter the Sahara in the future. It’s something scientists can ponder while sipping bottled fossil water pumped from underground.

“It’s the best water in Egypt,” Giegengack said — clean, refreshing mineral water. If you want to drink something good, try the ancient buried treasure of the Sahara.

Staff Writer, Washington Post

Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

  • blow-by-blow account

  • morale booster

  • relegated to

  • political acumen

  • de facto

  • astute

  • doctored accounts

  • gave vent to

Tick the statement that is true.

The places mentioned in the story are all imaginary.

Discuss the following statement in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.

A single event may change the course of the history of a nation.

Discuss the following statement in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.

The story is called ‘The Adventure’. Compare it with the adventure described in ‘We’re Not Afraid to Die...’

In which language do you think Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib talked to each other? Which language did Gangadharpant use to talk to the English receptionist?

In which language do you think Bhausahebanchi Bakhar was written?

You will probably agree that this story does not have breathless adventure and exciting action. Then what in your opinion makes it interesting?

Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid?

The story revolves around characters who belong to a tribe in Armenia. Mourad and Aram are members of the Garoghlanian family. Now locate Armenia and Assyria on the atlas and prepare a write-up on the Garoghlanian tribes. You may write about people, their names, traits, geographical and economic features as suggested in the story.

Discuss the following in pairs

Empathy and understanding are going out of modern society. The individual experiences intense alienation from the society around him or her.

The story begins and ends with Iona and his horse. Comment on the significance of this to the plot of the story.

Is drama a good medium for conveying a social message? Discuss.

Read the play out in parts. Enact the play on a suitable occasion.

Discuss in groups plays or films with a strong message of social reform that you have watched.

What impressions of Shahid do you gather from the piece?

What do you think are the reasons for the references made to the English people and the British monarchy?

What was the reason for the anxiety of Paul's mother as he grew older?

Discuss in pairs or groups of four.
It is difficult to part with personal items like a watch which have a sentimental value attached to them.

How is humour employed to comment on the pains that the author took to get his watch set right.

Identify some of the improbable images the author has used to effect greater humour.

Make a list of the expressions that imbue the watch with human attributes.

How does Shelley's attitude to science differ from that of Wordsworth and Keats?

What is the central argument of the speaker?

Explain the contradiction in the similies, ‘Like a child from the womb, like a ghost from the tomb’.

Identify the common characteristics shared by tribal communities all over the world.

'New Literature' is a misnomer for the wealth of the Indian Literary tradition. How does G. N. Devy explain this?

Discuss the following in pairs or in groups of four:
'It is time to realise that unless we modify the established notion of literature as something written, we will silently witness the decline of various Indian oral traditions'

The peacock is a colourful bird. How does the poem capture the various colours that its plumage displays?

The peacock is the national bird of India. Why do you think the peacock has been chosen?

Comment on the symbols used in ‘A Munda Song’. What aspect of the tribal worldview do they reflect?

The quill is the central element of the poem – what does it symbolise?

You notice a sense of urgency in the poet's request – what is the reason for this?

Taking off from Forster’s references to Emily Bronte, Sterne and Proust, discuss the treatment of time in some of the novels you have read.

Try rewriting the lecture as a formal essay and examine Forster’s statement:  'since the novel is itself often colloquial, it may possibly withhold some of its secrets from the graver and grander streams of criticism’.

How did the author feel about her mother's passion to make her a dancer?

Discuss the following in pairs or in small groups.
“Discipline and a questioning spirit can coexist in an individual.”

Comment on the contemporary concern that the poem echoes.

The significance of reading an autobiography lies in drawing lessons from another life. What is the significance of Kumudini's account for us as readers?

“I can see clear bridges between my life experiences and my work in dance.” How does Kumudini Lakhia weave episodes from the two realms in her account?

How does the poet bring out the immortality of the bird?

What facet of political life does the behaviour of Ajamil illustrate?

Why did Ajamil refuse to meet the sheepdog's eyes?

Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I wish to be friends with someone but my friendship is rejected.

Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a large group of friends but no best buddy.

Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have cordial relationships with all but I cannot connect with anyone.

Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

Jo entered the old stone house carrying _______________.

Write down in your own words the way Laurie confirmed the names of the March sisters.

Read the extract and state whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The author wanted to grow the desi variety of rice.

Make a list of the preparations made for an assault on Tiger Hill.

Individual guns ___________.

Make a list of the preparations made for an assault on Tiger Hill.

Bofors guns _____________.

Using a dictionary/internet note down the main differences between:

a developing nation and a developed nation

Find evidence from the lesson and write in your own words.

In Israel, the media have a positive outlook and self-respect.

State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The poet was exalted at the sight of the cherry tree.

State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The poem has an underlying message about the importance of trees.

Find proof from the poem for the following.

The struggle of the cherry tree for survival.

Discuss in groups, reasons/ consequences/ effects:

The cherry blossomed.

Answer the given question in your own word.

What was the first task given to the Swallow?

In our country engineering, teaching, and medical fields are much sought after. Other professions, occupations though they make a significant contribution to society, do not get their due.

(a) Farmer highly unpredictable economic gains
(b) Conservancy workers ________________
(c) ________________ ________________
(d) ________________ ________________
(e) ________________ ________________

Life is an amalgam of happy and sad moments. Think of such moments in your life, pair with your classmate, and share both the aspects of life.

Happy Moments Sad Moments
1. Winning the first prize in a competition Losing your mobile, bicycle, or wallet

The poem expresses feelings of serenity. Pick out expressions from the above poem that express the same.

Compare and contrast the two opposing human feelings as expressed by the poet.

Say whether the following statement is right or wrong.

Behrman was a hard-hearted person.

Correct the following statement.

The last leaf was a real leaf that survived.

Think and answer in your own word.

Why does the poet call our life ‘poor’?

The tongue justifies the possession of the spectacles on behalf of the nose. Pick up the expressions from the poem that argues in favour of the Nose and complete the following web diagram.

Justify the verdict delivered in the poem.

I can support my answer with the help of the following suitable arguments:

  1. _______________________
  2. _______________________
  3. _______________________

Read the poem and complete the web about the activities the planners do.

Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

Planners plan to construct buildings wherever they find a place.

Who gives medicine/treatment to sick animals and birds?

The tone of the poet is sarcastic. When he writes ‘All spaces are gridded filled with permutations of possibilities’ he intends to indicate the efforts made by the planner to exploit every available piece of land without any consideration of harming nature or violating attachments of people to places. Make pairs/groups and find out some more sarcastic lines having the same effect.

Read the first and second stanza of the poem. We understand that the poet wants to suggest the powerful dominance of the planners who shape the town according to their selfish desires. Make a list of such expressions. You may begin with -

  1. All the spaces are gridded, filled with permutations of possibilities.
  2. ________________________________
  3. ________________________________
  4. ________________________________

Read the lesson and name the following.

A sack around the heart

Proverbs associated with the word season: for eg: Make hay while the sun shines.

  1. _________________________
  2. _________________________

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

A Bad workman blames his tools.

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

If winter comes, can spring be far behind? - Shelley

Expansion of Idea:

Expand the following idea in about 100-150 words by using the points.

'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'.

  • Meaning of the proverb
  • Significance of the proverb
  • Add your own points.

You will come across many blogs written by famous personalities on different topics and issues. Read and make a list of at least ten blogs available on the internet. Read and summarise a blog and present it before the class.

Sr.No. The topic of the Blog Name of the Blogger
1. Don’t teach kids how to read, teach them why. ( stop-teaching-kids-how-to-read-reading-practice/) Terry Heick

Discuss orally in your class.

In what subjects is knowledge of mathematics used, at the school level, and college/university level. Name them.

Did you know maths is used in music and poetry also? Can you tell how?

Dos and Don'ts for Email Etiquettes. Discuss and add one or two Dos and Don'ts on your own.

Sr. No. Dos Don'ts
1. Have a clear subject line. Don’t forget your signature.
2. Use a professional salutation. Don’t use humour and sarcasm.
3. Recheck your e-mail. Don’t assume the recipient knows what you are talking about.
4. Keep private material confidential. Don’t punctuate poorly.
5. Keep your email short and flawless. Stay concise. Don't hit 'Reply All'.
6. Check your attachments before sending them. Don’t think that no one but the intended recipient will see your email. (No predictions)
7. Include your name or a signature with additional details and contact information. Don't forward emails without permission.

Guess the meaning of the following words and phrases: untold wealth, closest to the Emperor’s heart, grave offense, banish.

Fill in the gap, choosing word from the option to make an appropriate comparison.

as____________ as a snail

Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

You are going through a crisis that is making you short-tempered and impatient, due to which you end up causing harm to your family and friends. They have started complaining about it quite often.

Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

You realise that you no longer want to pursue your studies in the stream you have selected.

Make a list of functions/events/programs/activities organized in your junior college. Choose three events and plan a program schedule of your own. Prepare a script as well to show the associating role of the compere for a particular event. Make your own sequence and design a template for the same.

Wash your handkerchief clean. Hang it with a peg to dry in the wind. Watch how it flutters.

Name any four periods of History of British Drama.

State the difference between poetry and drama.

Define drama.

There are some dialogues that are short, but quite effective. They give us enjoyment and add beauty to the main story. Find some more from the text.

The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is a major character. He dominates in the story.

The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is smart as well as brave.

The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is obedient and simple.

The characters are a part of the stage setting. How does this reflect when the characters of the play range from the Duke and the Indian boy to the faeries?

Comment on the versatility and the aptness of the stage settings, as per the requirement of the play “A Midsummer-Night’s Dream!”

State whether the following statement is True or False:

Lysander and Demetrius fall in love with Helena as a result of the love potion.

The consequences of Oberon’s jealousy for Titania are comic rather than tragic. Comment.

Find 2/4 expressions of humour from the extract.

Look at the following words carefully for one minute. Now close your book and try to write down as many of the words as you can remember.

crust, tremendous, lava, crater, volcanic, tsunami, island, extinct, disaster, dormant, eruption, plume, inland, molten, active, coast

Shakespeare is acknowledged as the greatest writer because he understood human nature better than anyone else. Explain the statement in the context of the play.

Prove with the theme of the play/extract that the deeper human emotion which profoundly interested Shakespeare was jealousy.

Read the given extract (Act III)

Complete the following table.

Sr. No. Character Supportive Character  Incident
1. Dr. Stockmann
  1. _______
  2. _______
  1. _______
  2. _______
2. Peter Stockmann
  1. _______
  2. _______
  3. _______
  1. _______
  2. _______
  3. _______
3. Aslaksen
  1. _______
  2. _______
  1. _______
  2. _______

Read the given extract (Act III)

Match column A with column B.

Sr.No. A B
1. Dr. Thomas Stockmann Opportunist
2. Katherine Vulnerable
3. Peter Stockmann Honest and upright
4. Petra Coward
5. Hovstad timid but supportive
6. Billing Cuinng and corrupt
7. Aslaksen Courageous

Explain the use of the following property in the development of the play.


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

From now on The Herald shall be my artillery.

Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

You ought to be ashamed of yourself.

Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

Because your father can't do without my help.

Form pairs. Discuss and prepare a list of things that can be and will be done in the future. (5 things) Spot the modal verbs in your answer.

On any one page, note against the speech of every character, what feelings it should show to bring out the meaning best.
For example, joy, fear, anger, nervousness, friendliness, dislike, surprise, wonder, excitement, politeness, rudeness, cunning, curiosity.

List five questions from the play which can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

Who erected the first known veterinary hospitals in the world?

Explain the meaning of the following phrases : 

  1. An eagle’s eye
  2. A lion’s heart
  3. A mother’s touch.

What themes would you like to add to the themes given in this passage?

List the various people and places mentioned in the passage. The places Milo visits and the people he meets have unusual names. Write the meanings of those names.

Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Look, here’s something for you.”

Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Why, the dress you go to the theatre in !”

Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“I would rather not go to the party.”

Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Would you lend me this, just this?”

Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“What! ... how ! ... That’s impossible! ”

Complete the following table.

No. Utterance Who said it To whom When
(a) I touched it in the hall at the ministry. ___________ ___________ ___________
(b) It will give us time to look some more. ___________ ___________ ___________
(c) I might have needed it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(d) You must have made a mistake ___________ ___________ ___________
(e) Well, I lost it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(f) Mine was an imitation. ___________ ___________  ___________

Is it necessary to develop a good accent? Why? What efforts can you take to improve your pronunciation? With your teacher’s help, find out how to use online dictionaries for the purpose.

Explain the idea of ‘Conservation of Nature through Livelihood’ briefly, using the example given here.

Read the poem: ‘Home they brought her warrior dead’ by Alfred Lord Tennyson.

This story takes an unexpected turn when the lion decides to spare the camel’s life. Choose any fable, a story that you like, and rewrite it giving it an unexpected turn.

Write an imaginary telephone conversation in which you invite your friend to the above function.

Complete the following sentence with reference to the passage.

Epics are long poems that ______________________.

Complete the following sentence with reference to the passage.

It is believed that _________ Homer, who __________ and who ________ to all who __________________.

Say whether the following statement is right or wrong.

Sayali made a hasty purchase.

What changes do we see in the life of human beings when the season changes? Write with reference to their celebrations.

What changes do we see in the life of human beings when the season changes? Write with reference to their clothes.

What do you like better - the original poem or the parody? Why?

Complete the following diagram.

In the last stanza, there are three four-letter words that refer to a beautiful valley.
They are:

Write the symbol that is used in the poem to represent the following idea.

Equally good options.

Rewrite in your own word.

One of the Caesar’s traits that makes you laugh.

From any collection of classic poetry or the internet, find another famous poem by Robert Frost titled ‘Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening’. Try to understand the symbolism used in that poem in 8-10 lines.

From the poem, find the old word used for each of the following :

  • towards
  • here
  • does

Form groups of 6-8. One person (leader) chooses one item - a picture, a paragraph, or a lesson from any one of the 9th standard textbooks and writes the reference on a slip of paper, and folds it. Others ask him/her questions and try to guess what it is, from his/her answers. Follow the rules given below.

  • The maximum number of questions the rest of the group can ask is 20.
  • You cannot ask a direct question like ‘What do you have in mind?’
  • You can ask ‘Wh-’ questions or ‘Yes/no’ questions.
  • The leader has to give truthful answers.

Form groups of five. Discuss how you can complete the rest of the story without referring to Part II of the story.

Read: ‘The Open Window’ by H. H. Munro (Saki).

What did the husband want to buy?

Name the following.

Pounced on Dhyan Chand and hurt him

Read the poem aloud using proper intonation.

Find out how rice is cultivated. Describe the process with the help of pictures or diagrams.

Read the word. Write the words that combine to make them.


List and say whether the following statement agree with the passage or not.

You should look at the person you are talking to.

Imagine that you are in a land of tiny people like Lilliput. Write about some of the interesting things you might see there, including animals, houses, plants, vehicles, etc. Find an interesting name for this land.

Find two examples of the following from the lesson.

A Question

Would you like to be a netizen?

Guess the meaning of:

on the wing-

What does ‘Rangaawali’ mean?

What prompted the young seagull to fly finally?

What happened to the young seagull when it landed on the green sea?

Discuss, why it was considered as an adventurous and dangerous thing to travel in those days?

Who were on the ship? How were they related to Prospero?

What did the narrator think the unusual sound was?

What made the reporter gaze at the author?

What did the bird suggest Chulong, in exchange for its freedom?

Identify the speaker/character.

‘ Remember the tiny penknife he gave me last year’.

How is Karagattam performed?

How were offerings carried during the ancient period?

An Anagram is a word or a phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once. 

Now try to solve these anagrams

1. ELBOW  

Complete the following table with information from the anecdote about Mr. Scotti’s short trip.

Name Nicholas Scotti
Reason for his trip  
Means of transport  

He decided to find his cousins’ home without their help. He asked the policeman for information in Italian because he.

What made John Shepherd-Barron to come up with the idea of ATM?

Which theory of Ramanujan helps the ATMs to dispense cash?

Why did Anne want to exchange the book ‘Camera Obscura’?

Who baked the homemade cookies?

Which gift did Anne value the most?

There were many toys in the stall. Three of Hamid’s friends had bought some toys.

Write the names of Hamid’s friends in column A and the toys they bought in column B


Write the name of the toy against the picture.

Read the letter again and write a few lines on each of the following.

  1. things that the coach taught….
  2. transformation in the child……..
  3. things that amazed the writer……..

Tom lay thinking. Presently it occurred to him that he wished he was sick; then he could stay home from school. He examined himself. He found no symptoms or sickness, and he investigated again. This time he felt he had a stomach ache, but it soon grew feeble, and presently died wholly away. He reflected further.

What did he detect?

Have you ever had a strange dream? Share your dream in the class.

Imagine you are a marketing executive for a company in a specific industry (toothpaste, soup, hair care products, automobiles, etc) and are developing a product with a brand name that refers to a character from the story.

For example: You want to sell bandages that have little pictures of Don Quixote on them. Your company’s name is Kure-All and you decide to call them “Kure-All Quixote Bandages”.

The slogan might be: “Had a tough day with windmills? When you take a fall, use Kure-All.”

You can use exciting words, a catchy new slogan and a jingle among other things to promote sales of your item.

Look at the number pattern. Fill the blank in the middle of the series or end of the series.

QPO, NML, KJI, ______, EDC

He always had lunch with his family.

Read Section – III (para 1 and 4) and answer the following questions.

Paragraph 1

1. Who listened to the chipping sound of the chisel? ______

2. Who was working with the hammer and chisel? ______

Paragraph 4

1. Who was staring? ______

2. Who was the young stone carver? ______

3. What was he working on? ______

Read the line and answer the question.

I must go down to the sea again, to the lonely sea and the sky

Where does the poet want to go?

Read the line and answer the question.

And all I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing fellow rover.

What kind of human company does the poet want?

Everyone in the ship started to pray because ______.

Why did the author help his Grandfather plant trees?

Grandmother had wanted the peepul tree cut down because______.

Amma bought the vegetables from the______.

Read the comic strip again. Make groups of four and frame some questions on what you have read. Each group should ask a question in turns. You cannot repeat the same question. The team which asks more questions is the winner.


  • Which are the foreign vegetables mentioned?
  • What was sad for Columbus?

Mithali Raj was not encouraged to play cricket by her family members.

Women/Men can achieve anything, provided they put their heart and soul into it. Discuss in the class. Do you think being a man or a woman makes a difference?

What does ‘charges along like troops in a battle’ mean?

When did the richest farmer get upset? Why?

"I think it would be nice if we moved quickly from here.”

  1. Who does ‘I’ refer to?
  2. Why did they want to move quickly from there?

The villagers, built a _______ on his memory.

How should we treat everyone?

Read scene I of the play carefully and answer the question below.

Who is about to go on a hunt? Do the wolves panic on his arrival? Explain.

Where was the old man sleeping?

Why do we discover a mystery?

What is your hobby?

The hen-pigeon returned home when it started to _______.

Why did she pick up her pace?

What was their new hobby?

______was with Robinson.

How does a friend support us?

Kani took Teddy out for a ____.

Do you think you treat everyone equally? Justify with an example.

Amir switched off the fan wheFalsen he walked out.

Speak and win.

Join in one of the two groups. Choose two characters. Support or oppose any one of the characters. Say some sentences for the one you support and say some sentences against the other one, to win.

I support I oppose

Where were they going?

Who made the tree become a monster?

In which season is ice cream popular?

At the end of the festival , Kamali and Senthil saved______.

What happened to Jayan?

We shouldn't ______ ever.

Who lived in the old house?

Why does the poet feel that the nose is a funny thing?

The fir tree was sad ______.

The fir tree was not happy with the gold leaves ______.

Who fell down and down and down?

Are these sentence TRUE or FALSE

The poet tells the child to think of friends after it is dark.

What was the most important thing that Helen finally understood?

Choose the right word.

The tamarind tree grows over Tansen’s ______.

Did the girl buy a picture book?

What did he call his puppet?

Write the related words as shown in the example:

Write the related words as shown in the example.

Read the passage carefully and complete the activities: 

1. Complete the following sentences. (2)

  1. Female sparrows lay ____________
  2. Sparrows build their nest out of __________.
  3. The eggs are ________.
  4. In cities, sparrows build their nest in ______

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

2. How do sparrows take bathe? (2)

3. Find out adjectives for the following nouns from the passage. (2)

  1. ________ Song
  2. ________ Water
  3. ________ Bird
  4. ________ species

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world.
    (Underline the subordinate clause)
  2. Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time.
    (Frame a ‘wh’ type question to get the underlined part as an answer.)

5. ‘We have to save the birds.’ Do you agree with this statement? Why? (2)

Read the passage and write a summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to the summary

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

Read the following passage and do the activities.

1. State whether the following sentences are True or false. (2)

  1. The king’s temperament also changed.
  2. The king was happy with prediction of the astrologer.
  3. The courtiers sought an audience with Tenali Raman.
  4. Courtiers advised the king to regulate his diet.

2. Complete the web (2)

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising.

He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.

3. Find out describing words from the passage for the words given below. (2)

  1. exercise - ________
  2. lifestyle - ________
  3. ride - _________
  4. physician - __________

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning.
    (Use 'used to)
  2. They advised the king to regulate his diet. (Pick out the infinitive)

5. What are the benefits of daily exercise? (2)

Read the passage and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary.

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising. He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.

Read the poem.

For Want of a Nail
For want of a nail, the shoe was lost,
For want of a shoe the horse was lost,
For want of a horse, the rider was lost,
For want of a rider, the battle was lost,
For want of a battle, the kingdom was lost,
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail!
[traditional rhyme]

Now form questions for the answers given in the speech bubbles.

Say Aloud

dash bash splash cash trash
steer tear clear deer dear
shower power tower flower mower
poked croaked soaked stroked joked
wept kept crept leapt slept

Circle the words where you get a zzzzz sound. One is done for you.

price prize maze face
rice rise blaze fizz
lazy lacy busy racy
raise rays race ace
chase this these frosty

Now, read the following passage on “Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress-busting endorphins. Since our bodies cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
  2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter comes from the body and not the mind.
  3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practiced in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason'. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
  4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm-up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
  5. A handful of small-scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.

Answer the following.

a. How does laughter help one to cope with stress?

b. Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated'?

c. Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?

d. ‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.

e. Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?

  • sitting on the ground with legs crossed 
  • body movements
  • clapping
  • closed eyes 
  • breathing exercises 
  • chanting
  • stretching of arms and legs
  • bending backwards 
  • running/jogging
  • eye contact

f. ‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?

The passage given below is on Kabbadi. Read the passage and complete the activities that follow.

Kabbadi (கபடி - in Tamil) is a contact team sport that originated in Tamil Nadu, India. It is the national sport of Bangladesh. It is also popular in South Asia and is the state game of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana.

Kabbadi is played between two teams of seven players: the objective of the game is for a single player on offence referred to as a 'raider', to run in to the opposing teams half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court–all without being tackled by the defenders. Points are scored for each player tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but can be 'revived' for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle. The raider should hold his breath and utter the words like 'kabbadi kabbadi, hututu hututu, chadu kudu' etc. while the opponents try to catch him. If he stops uttering these words, he is considered out.

The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the subcontinent, such as Kabbadi or Chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, Kabbadi in Kerala and Telangana, Hadudu in Bangladesh, Bhavatik in Maldives, Kauddi or Kabbadi in the Punjab Region, Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India and Hu-Do-Do in Eastern India and Chadakudu in South India. The highest governing body of Kabbadi is the International Kabbadi Federation.

Given below is the visual presentation of the first paragraph.

i) Represent the other paragraphs in a visual form of your choice(flow chart, mind-map, pie-chart, etc.).

ii) Choose the correct option.

1. A contact sport usually involves a ______contact between players.

  1. violent
  2. gentle
  3. physical

2. Kabbadi is a game played between ______.

  1. seven teams of two players
  2. two teams of seven players
  3. four teams of seven players

3. A single ______.

  1. player on offence is referred to as a raider
  2. offence is referred to as a raider
  3. raider is an offence by the player

iii) Answer the following.

  1. How does a raider score points for his team?
  2. When does a raider concede a point to the opponent team?
  3. Can a player be revived when he/she is out of the game? Explain your answer.
  4. Kabbadi is called by different names in different parts of India. Do you know how Pallankuzhi is called in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala?

Now, read the following biographical extract on Sujatha Rangarajan, a Sciencefiction writer, and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Sujatha is the allonym of the Tamil author S. Rangarajan and it is this name that is recognised at once by the Tamil SciFi reading community. You might have seen the Tamil movie ‘Endiran’ where the robot Chitti exhibits extraordinary talents in an incredible manner. The robot could excel a human being in any act, beyond one’s imagination. Jeeno, a robotic dog which appeared in Sujatha’s science fiction novel “En Iniya Iyandhira” (My Dear Robot) formed the basis of Chitti’s character. Like Chitti, Jeeno was an allrounder who could cook, clean and fight. High-tech computer technology terms are used in the story. Jeeno, a pet robot, plays an important role throughout the story. As the story proceeds, it behaves and starts to think on its own like a human and instructs Nila, a human being, on how to proceed further in her crises.
  2. In the preface of ‘En Iniya Iyandhira’, the writer states the reason for his attraction to the genre: “Science gives us the wonderful freedom to analyse thousands and thousands of alternative possibilities. While using it, and while playing with its new games, a writer needs to be cautious only about one thing. The story should draw some parallels or association from the emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then it becomes interesting. Jeeno, the robot dog, was intelligent. But the character became popular only because of the robot’s frequently displayed human tendencies.” It is no wonder that all his works echo these words and will remain etched in the minds of the readers who enjoy reading his novels to have a wonderful lifetime experience.
  3. It was Sujatha, who set the trend for sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He has written 50 sci-fi short stories and these were published in various Tamil magazines. His stories have inspired many readers to extend their reading to English sci-fi writers like Isaac Asimov. The themes were bold, even if there was a dependence on a very well-established characterization of English fiction. Sujatha opened up a new world to us with his writings on holograms, computers and works like ‘En Iniya Iyanthira’ inspire many to study computer science.
  4. He has been one of the greatest writers for more than four decades. He combined reasoning and science in his writings. Being a multifaceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctively. He was the one who took Tamil novels to the next level. As an MIT alumnus and an engineer at BHEL, he was very good at technology. He could narrate sci-fi stories impressively. His readers always enjoyed reading all his detective and sci-fi novels which featured the most famous duo ‘Ganesh’ and ‘Vasanth’.
  5. Sujatha has played a crucial role as a playwright for various Tamil movies which have fascinated movie lovers. Hence, it is fathomable that the writer’s perspective of future India enthuses every reader and paves a new way to reading sci-fi stories in English.

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

  1. How was Jeeno different from other robots?
  2. What precaution should one take while writing Science fiction stories?
  3. What inspired Sujatha’s themes?
  4. Why were Sujatha’s sci-fi stories impressive?

B. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. difficult to believe (para 1)
  2. a style or category of art, music or literature (para 2)
  3. having many sides (para 4)
  4. capable of being understood (para 5)

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

The Stationmaster’s Supreme Sacrifice by Sanchari Pal (Adapted)

  1. Thirty-three years ago, on the night of December 2, 1984, Bhopal was hit by a catastrophe that had no parallel in the world’s industrial history. An accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal had released almost 30 tons of a highly toxic gas called methyl isocyanate, turning the city into a vast gas chamber. The result was a nightmare; more than 600,000 people were exposed to the deadly gas cloud that left thousands dead and many more breathless, blind and in agonizing pain. Few people know that during the Bhopal gas tragedy a heroic stationmaster risked his own life to save others.
  2. On the evening of December 3, 1984, Ghulam Dastagir was settling down in his office to complete some pending paperwork. This work kept him in his office till 1am in the night, when he emerged to check the arrival of the Gorakhpur Mumbai Express. As he stepped on to the platform, the deputy stationmaster felt his eyes burn and a queer itching sensation in his throat. He did not know that poisonous fumes leaking from Union Carbide’s pesticide factory were stealthily enveloping the railway station.
  3. Beginning to choke, Dastagir did not know then that twenty-three of his railway colleagues, including his boss, station superintendent Harish Dhurve, had already died. It was later reported that Dhurve had heard about the deadly gas and had immediately tried stopping the movement of trains passing through Bhopal before collapsing in his office chamber. His suddenly worsening health and years of experience told Dastagir that something was very wrong. Though he did not fully comprehend what was happening, he decided to act immediately when he did not get any response from the station master. He alerted the senior staff at nearby stations, like Vidisha and Itarsi, to suspend all train traffic to Bhopal.
  4. However, the jam-packed GorakhpurKanpur Express was already standing at the platform and its departure time was 20 minutes away. Listening to his gut instinct, Dastagir summoned his staff and told them to immediately clear the train for departure. When they asked if they should wait until the order to do so came from the head office, Dastagir replied that he would take complete responsibility for the train’s early departure. He wanted to ensure that the train left immediately, without any delay. His colleagues later recalled that Dastagir could barely stand and breathe as he spoke to them. Breaking all rules and without taking permission from anyone, he and his brave staff personally flagged off the train.
  5. But Dastagir’s work was not done. The railway station was filling up with people, desperate to flee the fumes. Some were gasping, others were vomiting, and most were weeping. Dastagir chose to remain on duty, running from one platform to another, attending, helping and consoling victims. He also sent an SOS to all the nearby railway offices, asking for immediate medical help. As a result, four ambulances with paramedics and railway doctors arrived at the station. It was winter and the gas was staying low to the ground, a thick haze poisoning everything in its path. Besieged by hordes of suffering people, the station soon resembled the emergency room of a large hospital. Dastagir stayed at the station, steadfastly doing his duty, knowing that his family was out there in the ill-fated city. That day all he had for his protection was a wet handkerchief on his mouth.
  6. Ghulam Dastagir’s devotion to duty saved the lives of hundreds of people. However, the catastrophe didn’t leave him unscathed. One of his sons died on the night of the tragedy and another developed a lifelong skin infection. Dastagir himself spent his last 19 years shuttling in and out of hospitals; he developed a painful growth in the throat due to prolonged exposure to toxic fumes. When he passed away in 2003, his death certificate mentioned that he was suffering from diseases caused as a direct result of exposure to MIC (Methyl Isocyanate) gas. A memorial has been built at platform No.1 to pay tribute to those who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty on the fateful night of December 3, 1984. However, Ghulam Dastagir, who died later, is not one of them. A forgotten hero whose sense of duty and commitment saved countless lives, Dastagir’s story deserves to be recognized and remembered by our fellow countrymen.
  1. Why was the accident at Union Carbide unparalleled in the world’s industrial history?
  2. How was Dastagir affected by the poisonous gas?
  3. What was the action taken by the station superintendent?
  4. How did Dastagir and his staff break rules?
  5. What was the cause of Dastagir’s death?
  6. Find words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.
  1. safeguard (para 1)
  2. common or familiar (para 2)
  3. prompt (para 4)
  4. cause (para 6)

Who according to Gandhi, can fight against evil and how?

What is Gandhiji’s ideal?

According to Tagore, when will India get the opportunity to win the gift of freedom?

How does Tagore acknowledge Gandhi’s noble work?

Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. a malevolent desire for revenge (para 1)
  2. tactful (para 2)
  3. despise (para 3)

Find words from the passage which are antonyms of the following. 

  1. artificially (para 1)
  2. strength (para 2)

Here is an amazing news item on how the qualities of duty and devotion is not restricted to humans alone but shared by animals. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

Caesar, the Hero of Mumbai on 26/11 

  1. Mumbai: Caesar, the last surviving hero of his kind, died of a heart attack on Thursday. Caesar, a Labrador Retriever, was covered with tri-color and given an emotional farewell from the city Police Force. The Mumbai Police Commissioner too marked the passing of the hero with a tweet.
  2. Caesar, who was 11 years old was the sole survivor among the dogs of Mumbai Police who took part in bomb detection operations during the terrorist attack on Mumbai that began on November 26, 2008. He died of a heart attack at a farm in Virar where he and his three canine buddies had been sent after retirement. During the terror attack in Mumbai, Caesar saved several lives when he sniffed out the hand grenades left by the terrorists at the busy CST railway station.
  3. Caesar was also a part of the search team at Nariman House, where terrorists were holed up for three days. Earlier he was also pressed into service for bomb search operation after the 2006 serial train blasts and July 2017 blast in Mumbai. The Mumbai police officials also tweeted their grief saying, “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable. We will remember our heroes forever.”

Answer the following questions.

  1. The Labrador Retriever was covered with tri-color. What does this signify?
  2. How did Caesar save several lives at the CST railway station?
  3. Which word in the third paragraph of the passage means the same as ‘forced’? 
  4. “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable”. Mention three services rendered by Caesar.
  5. Caesar is a Labrador breed of dogs. Name a few other native breeds that are used by the Police Force.
  6. Try to rewrite the news item in your mother tongue without losing the spirit and flavour of the text. Give a suitable title to the translated version.

Read the passage given below and make notes.

To match the best cities across the world, the Government of India initiated ‘smart cities’ to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people. The agenda under smart city promises to resolve urban sustainability problems. Urban forests provide a range of important ecosystem services that are critical for the sustainability of cities. Urban forestry, which is defined more as ‘Management of Trees’ contributes to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the society. Mangroves, lakes, grasslands, and forests in and around our cities, act as sponges that absorb the air and noise pollution and they present themselves as our cultural and recreational hotspots. However, these spots are rapidly being reclaimed and replaced in the name of development. Presence of urban green has shown to increase the economic value of the place.

Urban forests contribute to reduce the cost of building storm water drain systems for municipalities and neutralizing urban heat island effect. Plants not only provide shade but also help in regulating the micro-climate. They help regulate energy budgets, improve air quality, and curtail noise pollution. Trees, herbs, shrubs, and grasses arrest sedimentation and prevent other pollutants from entering our water systems. This will give a chance for our urban lakes and rivers to recover and help improve aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity also gets a boost through the urban forestsand helps create corridors connecting the forest areas. High biodiversity areas can also help to build resilient ecosystems. Availability of forests within our urban areas gives an opportunity for children to connect to the natural environment and learn about native species.

Now read the following article on the emerging career options in the modern era and answer the questions that follow.

The students at the higher secondary level in schools start thinking of suitable courses to take up at the university level based on their aptitude, ability, and interests. While considering the higher education options, they should also plan the career path they wish to take. In today’s complex job scenario, there is a mismatch between demand and supply. On one hand, we have qualified professionals desperately trying to find a job, while on the other hand, there are many professions that need suitable talented employees. But such skilled employees are unavailable. Therefore, the need of the hour is that students have an understanding of the emerging career options. and globalisation has widened the scope of career options in the twenty–first century. Let us consider some popular careers.

Fashion Designing

The current cosmopolitan and fashion–conscious wave that has taken over our country has opened up a huge arena for careers in fashion. These careers encompass designing clothes, costumes, jewellery, footwear, wardrobe, cosmetics, accessories and the like.

Culinary Arts

With food and cookery shows being a major trend across the world, culinary arts, a sub-domain of the hospitality sector, has now become the most sought-after career.

Paramedical sciences

In recent times, there has been a great demand in the health care industry. Paramedical professionals who support medical practitioners in areas such as optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are much sought after.

Media, Journalism and Advertising

In this information era, print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. This arena has become a huge career playground because youngsters are attracted to it as the exposure and reach are greater through such mass media. We notice that radio and TV channels, internet companies, and advertising agencies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

Hotel Management

The hotel industry is the fastest-growing industry in India. The number of international travellers (both for business and leisure) is increasing. The hospitality and service industry offers career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management, etc.

Sports Management

With multinational companies supporting sports, careers in sports offer enormous scope. One need not be a player or an athlete to shine in a sports career because the field of sports offers various career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists, dieticians, referees, etc. Conducting sports events successfully, organizing the event laudably, preparing the ground for the event are all part of sports management.

  1. When do students start thinking about their career path?
  2. How can students build a strong career?
  3. What are the integral aspects of a successful career?
  4. What is meant by ‘culinary art’?
  5. Why is media a popular career option?
  6. Name some paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.
  7. Why is the hotel industry seen as the fastest growing in India?
  8. Does one have to be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.
  9. Pick one word from the passage which is the opposite of ‘modern’.
  10. Which word in the passage means ‘composed of people from many parts of the country’?

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

Humans have long been fascinated by fiction. We experience excitement in assigning supernatural power to imaginary characters in fictional stories – and so we have Spider man, Batman, He–man, Titans and many more. The ‘Cyborg’ was an offshoot of such wild imagination of humans to invest our species with superhuman powers. Today, the Cyborg is no more an imaginary organism. We are living in a world where a sizeable population of humans have merged their bodies with technological implants. The term ‘Cyborg’, short for ‘cybernetic organism’, was coined to describe a man, whose body is implanted with technological devices to supplement and substitute body functions.

Cyborgs include people with cardiac pacemakers, contact lenses, bionic ears and eyes, prosthetics and so on. In other words, a cyborg is partly human and partly machine. The technological innovations in the field of medicine and healthcare augment humans with machines, producing a beta version of the human body. The advent of brain machine interfaces is certain to blur the boundary between humans and machines. Scientists are working hard to find a technique for age reversal too. People do not want to die, so mankind is striving to get to the final frontier, which is development of machines and devices that would accord man immortality.

The needs of humans are not limited. As time passes, food habits change, thinking patterns change, and even appearances change. We are about to travel by driverless, fully automated vehicles. Computers and smart phones have become our masters. The more we depend and merge with technological advancements, the more the humanness in us slowly erodes. Intelligence is sought to be infused into machines and robotics are designed in such a way to give man a virtual human companion. The field of artificial intelligence is overtaking the human brain and many fear that it could even harm the human race. Despite certain limitations and potential threats, many believe that cyborgs will be the next step in the evolution of mankind. The amalgamation of man and machine is sure to add a new dimension to the life of mankind and this will prove to be the ‘biggest evolution in Biology’ since the emergence of life, four billion years ago.


a) Account for the popularity of characters with supernatural powers.

b) Who is referred to as a ‘Cyborg’?

c) What is expected to happen with the advent of the brain machine interface?

d) The needs of humans are not limited. How is this statement elaborated in the passage?

e) How can a machine turn into a virtual companion for humans?

f) Explain the flipside of the rapid technological advancement.

g) Identify the word in para 1 which means ‘everlasting life’.

h) Which of the following words is synonymous with ‘amalgamation’?

  1. recreation
  2. integration
  3. exploration
  4. proposition

i) Which of the following options is the antonym of the word ‘advent’?

  1. drawback
  2. dispute
  3. departure
  4. danger

j) Find out the word which is the antonym of ‘natural’ in para 3.

On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.

The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “Shyar Khamba”. The inhabitants of Shyar Khamba, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today

Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary’’. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.

The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.

Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922, 1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse. Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain. In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest.

Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the environment is called air pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution.

Particulate Matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles if inhaled can affect health. The impact of PM 2.5 is particularly high in South Asia. Outdoor pollution is caused by a variety of pollutants like public and private vehicles, waste burning in the open, power production industries and construction and even cigarette smoking in public places.

Presently, air pollution is a major and growing risk factor for ill health in India. Delhi is one of the most air polluted cities in India. The air in the city as well as areas surrounding it has worsened to extremely hazardous levels in the recent years. This year’s pollution level is the worst in four years. Several studies have shown that poor air quality is a cause for many health issues among people with lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio vascular diseases. Some studies throw light on the fact that about 16 per cent of the deaths worldwide in 2015 were due to pollution.

Air Masks are an option to protect oneself outdoor. Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate matter up to the size of 2.5 microns and above. Their usage is limited to some days and should be disposed off after their prescribed duration of usage. The price for air masks starts from Rs 100 and can go up to Rs 500 and more.

We have to take active measures to control pollution and protect ourselves to lead a healthy and pollution free life.

  1. What is meant by pollution? Mention the different kinds of pollution.
  2. How does Particulate Matter cause air pollution?
  3. Identify three major causes of pollution in air
  4. Name the types of pollution we encounter now.
  5. What sort of health issues do people face due to air pollution?
  6. How can we protect ourselves outdoor from air pollution?
  7. Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
  8. Identify the meaning of the word similar to the one used in the fourth para:
  1. emerging
  2. filtering
  3. floating
  4. falling

Read the following information given in the table below and answer the questions.

A nice choice from Chennai to the National capital
Shortest Route between Chennai and Hazrat Nizamuddin 8 Halts & 324 intermediate stations in between
Station Name Departs Day Speed
Chennai Central 06.05 1 75
Vijayawada 11.55 1 76
Warangal 14.40 1 77
Balharshah 18.00 1 78
Nagpur 20.45 1 74
Bhopal 02.10 2 89
Jhansi 05.31 2 99
Gwalior 06.32 2 85
Agra Cantt 07.57 2 76
Hazrat Nizamudin 10.25 2 -

a) The number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is______.

  1. five
  2. ten
  3. eight
  4. eleven

b) The train is expected to reach ______ around 8.45 PM

  1. Warangal
  2. Vijayawada
  3. Bhopal
  4. Nagpur

c) Between ______ the train runs at its maximum speed.

  1. Bhopal and Gwalior 
  2. Bhopal and Jhansi
  3. Bhopal and Hazarat Nizamudin
  4. Bhopal and Agra

d) Almost ______ the train reaches Vijayawada.

  1. the day after
  2. around early morning
  3. late night
  4. around noon

e) People prefer the Rajadhani Express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital because ______.

  1. it reaches the destination on the same day
  2. the charge is reasonable.
  3. the train halts at ten stations.
  4. it is the shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi.

f) The destination of Rajadhani express is______.

  1. Hazarat Nizamudin.
  2. New Delhi junction.
  3. Old Delhi.
  4. Rajkot.

How should teenagers guard against cyber crimes?

What should we do to ensure Safe Surfing?

What are the details not to be revealed in public domain?

Should children be discouraged from playing online games?

Which of the following should one avoid while using social media? Tick against the correct options.

Mention any three details that should not be revealed in public domain.

What should parents do to ensure cyber safety for their wards? (Any three points)

Why is it not advisable to play online games?

Pick out word which mean the same as

stop doing something (para 1) 

Pick out word which mean the same as

place or fix (para 2) 

Pick out word which mean the same as

not protected (para 2)

Pick out word which mean the same as

keep a check on (para 3)

Read the given sentence and underline the 'no' word.

Nobody is at home.

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

"I don't believe in taking the right decisions. I take decisions, I take decisions and then make them right:' One of them make them right. One of Ratan Tata's inspiring words which made me dream beyond shadows. I feel fortunate that I discovered him in the early stage of my life and now I am using his teachings to mould my future the way I want.

Even though Ratan Tata was born into a very posh family in India, he never took money and power for granted. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York, Ratan Tata began his career in the Tata Group working on the shop floor of Tata Steel. After working for almost 10 years he was appointed as the director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited (NELCO) in order to help its struggling finances. He worked hard to build a better consumer electronics division but the economic recession and union strikes prevented him from achieving success and this success helped Tata to be appointed as the chairman of the Tata Group of companies. He started with a very basic job in his father's company and today he owns a billion dollar company.

The tag of greatness does not come without making any sacrifices and this tag on Ratan Tata suits to its best.

Tata group launched its passenger car Tata Indica in the year 1998 but Tata Indica was a failure in its first year and the experiment seemed to be failing. Many people started advising Ratan Tata that he should sell the passenger car business. Ratan Tata also agreed to this and a proposal was given to Ford. they showed interest too. The three-hour meeting at Ford headquarters in Detroit, chairman of Ford (Bill Ford) said to Ratan Tata, "Why did you enter in the passenger car business when you were not knowing of it. It will be a favour if we buy this business from you."

Ratan Tata decided to move back home. Whi le travelling he was very tense as the feeling of being insulted was on his mind. After earlier failures, Tata Motors did well with its business of passenger cars but in the same period, Ford did very bad. In 2008 when Ford was on it way of bankruptcy, Tata Group offered Ford to buy its luxury car brand, Jaguar Land Rover. Ford arrived in Mumbai for the meeting. In the meeting, Bill Ford said to Ratan Tata, you are doing a big favour for us by buying-Jaguar-Land Rover is now owned by Tata Group and is currently making profits.

A1. Rewrite the following sentences as per their occurrence in the extract:   (2)

  1. He was appointed as the Director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited.
  2. Tata Group launched its passenger car 'Tata Indica in the year 1998.
  3. Billi Ford said to Ratan Tata, "You are doing a big favour for us by buying Jaguar-Land Rover."
  4. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York.

A2. Explain:   (2)

The writer says, "I don't believe in taking right decisions. I take decisions and then make them right."

A3. Give reasons:  (2)

Ratan Tata decided to sell his passenger car business.

A4. Personal Response:  (2)

Right decision at the right time is important success. Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:   (2)

Do as directed:

  1. He worked hard building a better consumer electronics division.
    (Rewrite the sentence using the infinitive form of the underlined word)
  2. Tata Group launched the passenger car Tata Indica.
    (Rewrite it beginning with 'The passenger car Tata Indica......')

A6. Vocabulary:

Give antonyms.

  1. Profit × ______
  2. Prevent × ______

Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Fill in the blanks:  (2)

  1. ______ percent of our daily communication is non-verbal.
  2. Eye contact is another type of ______ communication.
  3. Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling ______.
  4. One can readily detect _______.

According to some experts, a staggering 93 percent of our daily communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions are easy to decipher. One can readily detect happiness, sadness, anger. Physicians can tell a patient is doing well (or not) by looking at his/her face.

Eye contact is another type of non-verbal communication, which can tell a lot about the other person. The eyes convey a range of emotions-happiness, sadness, boredom, surprise, confidence .......... even emotional interest. Staring at someone's forehead may intimidate the recipient, staring at the mouth is sometimes interpretated as a sign of emotional interest. In fact, staring into someone's eyes is a sign of lying, and so is looking away. In certain cultures, lack of eye contact is taken as a sign of respect.

If body language is to be defined, it is a combination of facial expression, gestures, eye contact, body movements and posture and voice.

Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling distressed or uncomfortable. If the pupils are dilated, it ofter indicates interest, even emotional interest. The lips also reflect our body language, and lip biting indicates worry and/or anxiety; tightening of the lips may be an indication of disapproval. Slightly turned-up lips indicate happiness and slightly turned-down lips indicate sadness.


A3. Find the antonyms of:    (2)

  1. verbal × ______
  2. entertaining × ______
  3. sender × ______
  4. comfortable × ______

A4. Do as Directed:   (2)

  1. The eyes convey a range of emotions.   (Frame a 'Wh' question in order to get the underlined part as answer).
  2. Physicians can tell about a patient's wellness.  (Rewrite using 'able to')

A5. Personal Response:   (2)

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in our daily life. Comment.

Match the following items from column-A with those column-B:

Column 'A' Column 'Non-Textual'
(a) Geoffrey Chaucer (i) Trinidad
(b) Daniel Defoe (ii) Wuthering Heights
(c) V.S. Naipaul (iii) Robinson Crusoe
(d) Emile Bronte (iv) The Canterbury Tales

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

The call of the seas has always found an echo in me. Not being rich enough to roam in a private yacht, I have taken the poor man's way out. I swim across them. I have always been fascinated by the Indian ocean, whether at Mumbai, at Puri or at Gopalpur. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill. But the idea of swimming the Palk Strait did not occur to me until after I swam in the English channel. Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered. teaming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me. By the way, for preparation, I continued a strict and rigorous course of training which began in 1960. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea. Neither of these was easy.

Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait, especially about the tides and currents. Everything about the English channel is known-there is the Channel Swimming Association, there are trained pilots there are wants to be hired, accurate weather forecasts, dependable tide tables and every other form of assistance was readily available. All that one needed was money. Here in the Palk Strait one has to find out firstly from where information could be obtained and then decide how much of it could be incorrect or misleading!

A1. Rewrite the following as per their sequence in the extract:    (2)

  1. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea.
  2. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill.
  3. All that one needed was money.
  4. Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait.

A2. Explain:    (2)

What does the writer man by saving, "Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered, teeming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me"?

A3. Give reason:   (2)

The narrator had an intense desire to swim in the Palk Strait. Explain the reasons for it.

A4. Personal Response:    (2)

Do you like to have an adventurous life? Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:

Do as directed:   (2)

  1. Very little was known about the Palk Strait. (Rewrite as a negative sentence)
  2. I had to collect a comprehensive range of facts. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with 'A comprehensive ........)

A6. Vocabulary:   (2)

Give the synonyms of the following words:

  1. rigorous - ______
  2. thrill - ______

Read the passage given below:

1. Very often, we do not take the first step towards a good cause because we say to ourselves, "The task is so big. What can I do alone?" So nothing gets done. There is much talk about environmental protection, air pollution and saving our forests. Do we really care? If we do, here are a few things we can do to make our surroundings more pleasant.
2. It is good to adopt a two-uses-attitude! By putting an article to a second use, we are giving it a longer lease of life and using up less raw material from nature. One of the worst things we do is abuse of paper. The clean sides of envelopes can be used to write small notes, lists and reminders around the house. The more paper we use, the more trees will have to be cut down. For the same reason, we should avoid the use of paper napkins or paper plates. Cloth napkins are just as good, for they can be washed and used over and over again.
3. Another area which needs the most urgent attention is effective garbage disposal. People who are conscious about it follow rules and laws strictly. As a result, their neighbourhoods are clean and beautiful Similarly, each one of us can contribute to a cleaner environment. All kitchen waste should be collected separately. Those of you who have green fingers can turn this into valuable manure. Dig a pit and put the kitchen waste into it. When the pit is a little over half full, cover it up with mud. Let nature do the rest. Within three or six months, we will have a good garden manure. It can also be done as a community project by digging a large pit in the colony. Do take help of all the members, for nothing succeeds like co-operation
4. A lot of people don't care about the environment because they don't understand the adverse effect that society has on it. It is important to convince people to care about the environment. The first step would be to convince people to change by providing simple alternative solutions and ways of doing things. Theintemet is a powerful tool and a group on social media of like-minded people can be formed. People can share environmental stories and issues, as well as pool in solutions and alternatives to educate one another. With the current state that our planet is in, it is imperative that people actively care about the environment and most importantly to act now.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any Eight questions from the nine given below:

  1. Why don't we take the first step towards a good cause?
  2. What is a two-uses-attitude?
  3. What can we do to avoid the abuse of paper? (any two points)
  4. What is the result of an effective way of a garbage disposal?
  5. What procedure can one adopt for kitchen waste?
  6. How can making of garden manure be done as community project?
  7. How long does it take to make good garden manure?
  8. Select a suitable word from the passage which means - being concerned or interested. (Paragraph 3)
  9. Pick out the word from the passage which means - completely necessary? (Paragraph 4)

Read the passage below:

1. Our history makes it evident that the Indian Plastics Industry made a vigorous beginning in 1957 but it took more than 30 years for it to pervade Indian lifestyles. In 1979, "the market for plastics' was just being seeded by the state-owned Indian Petro-Chemicals and it was only in 1994 that plastic soft drink bottles became a visible source of annoyance.
2. In the same year, people in other cities were concerned about the state of public sanitation and also urged regulatory bodies to ban the production, distribution and use of plastic bags. However, the challenge was greater than it appeared at first.

The massive generation of plastic waste in India is due to rapid urbanisation, spread of retail chains, plastic packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products, to consumer items and cosmetics. The projected high growth rates of GDP and continuing rapid urbanisation suggest that India's trajectory of plastic consumption and plastic waste is likely to increase.

4. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report of 2018, India stands among few other countries like France, Mongolia and several African countries that have initiated total or partial nationallevel bans on plastics in their jurisdictions. On World Environment Day in 2018, India vowed to phase out single-use plastics by 2022, which gave a much needed impetus to bring this change
5. In this context, thereafter ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) are currently sending their collected waste to cement plants for co-processing, twelve other states/UTs are using plastic waste for polymer bitumen road construction and still four other states are using the plastic waste for waste-to-energy plants and oil production. A world of greater possibilities has now opened up to initiate appropriate and concrete actions to build up the necessary institutions and systems before oceans turn, irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic.
6. However there is no one single masterstroke to counter the challenges witnessed by the staggering plastic waste management in the country. The time is now to formulate robust and inclusive National Action Plans and while doing so, the country will establish greater transparency to combat the plastic jeopardy in a more sustainable and holistic way.

Based on your understanding of the passage answer any six out of the seven questions given below:

  1. What does the writer mean by 'visible source of annoyance'?
  2. Why did people demand a ban on plastics?
  3. What created a demand for plastics in India?
  4. With reference to the graph write one conclusion that can be drawn about the production of plastics in 2019 (approximately).
  5. What does the upward trend of the graph indicate?
  6. What does the line, oceans turning 'irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic', suggest?
  7. What step must be taken to combat the challenges of plastic waste management? What will be its impact?

Complete the dialogue.

Anil:  Which is your favourite book?
Sunil: ________________________
Anil: What type of book is it?
Sunil: ________________________

The branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources. 

  1. Microeconomics 
  2. Macro economics
  3. Economics
  4. None of these

Read the following sentence.

‘A very wise man once remarked that of the unspoken word, you are a master; of the spoken word, you are a slave.’ The sentence has two pairs of opposites - spoken and unspoken, and master and slave. The contrasting ideas make the sentence more effective. Putting together opposite or contrasting ideas in one sentence is a literary device. It is called antithesis.

Read the following examples of antithesis.

  • Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
  • Man proposes and God disposes.
  • Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
  • Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit.

Activity: Live English: Packs, packets, pouches, wrappers

Given above is the picture of an imaginary food item’s packet. Let us see how to ‘read’ the matter on the packet as a vigilant consumer.

  1. Look at the wrapper and complete the sentences.
    1. The name of the food item is ______.
    2. It is made by ______.
    3. It is a ______ food item. (Veg/Non-veg)
    4. The ______ sign indicates whether it is a Veg or Non-veg food item.
    5. The ingredients are ______, ______, ______, ______.
    6. The date of packing is ______ and the expiry date is ______.
    7. It should be consumed before ______ from the date of manufacturing.
  2. Try and obtain more information about the various symbols printed on the packet.
  3. Discuss the following -
    1. Why the ‘recipe’ is given on the packet.
    2. Why the packet tells us to visit the website of the company.
    3. What ideas are used to make the packet attractive.
    4. How you will verify whether something is good for you to eat.

Collect the outer coverings of fast food items. Discuss the following points in groups and then write your observations in your notebook.

  • Ingredients
  • Manufactured by
  • Net weight
  • Veg or Non-veg
  • Recipe
  • Nutrition facts
  • MRP
  • Mfg date
  • Website
  • Other instructions, if any

Based on the poet’s idea of true success, think of four people in your surroundings - your family, neighbours, friends, teachers, classmates, etc. who have achieved true success. Write, in short, what makes them successful.

William Shakespeare was one of the greatest playwrights of all time. He lived in the 16th century. Many Shakespearean plays have been written in the short-story form. Find out the names of at least 5 of Shakespearean plays.

Example: Romeo and Juliet

Enact any one anecdote in the classroom.

Form groups of four to six.
Discuss whether and how you can improve English spelling.

Arrange a ‘Jokes’ session in the classroom where each student tells a joke. The jokes must be told in English.

Make groups of 10-15. In this game, each person writes three sentences about himself/herself, two of which are true and the third one is a lie. Read aloud your sentences, while others guess which two are true and which is a lie.

Examples: Hello, everyone! I am Sonali. I have a brother and a sister. I live in Amalner. We have a pet dog at home.

In the game ‘Two Truths, One Lie!’, it is necessary to use details which can be verified to see whether they are true or false. For example, you cannot use sentences like ‘I once had a blue sweater.’

Look up the following entries in the Language Study pages given at the end.

  • stress
  • intonation
  • sound
  • consonant
  • vowel


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