Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Infertility is the inability of a couple to produce a baby even after unprotected intercourse. It might be due to abnormalities present in either male or female, or might be even both the partners. The techniques used to assist infertile couples to have children are as follows.
(a) Test tube babies
This involves in-vitro fertilization where the sperms meet the egg outside the body of a female. The zygote, hence produced, is then transferred in the uterus or fallopian tube of a normal female. The babies produced from this method are known as test tube babies.
(b) Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT)
It is a technique that involves the transfer of gamete (ovum) from a donor into the fallopian tube of the recipient female who is unable to produce eggs, but has the ability to conceive and can provide right conditions for the development of an embryo.
(c) Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
It is a method of injecting sperm directly into the ovum to form an embryo in laboratory.
(d) Artificial insemination
Artificial insemination is a method of transferring semen (sperm) from a healthy male donor into the vagina or uterus of the recipient female. It is employed when the male partner is not able to inseminate the female or has low sperm counts.
ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) is a term that describes several different methods used to help infertile couples. ART involves removing eggs from a woman’s body, mixing them with sperm in the laboratory and putting the embryos bath into a woman’s body.
Success rates vary depending on many factors.Something that affects the success rate of ART includes age of the partners, reason for infertility,type of ART, if the egg is fresh or frozen. Various methods are now available to help such couples are — in vitro fertilization, gamete intra fallopian transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection & artificial insemination.
(i)In vitro fertilization – Patient’s egg & her partner’s sperm are collected & mixed together in a laboratory to achieve fertilization outside the body. The embryo produced may then be transferred into the female patient. It is commonly knownas test tube baby programme.
(ii)Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) – A procedure in which eggs are retrieved from a woman, mixed with sperm & immediately replaced in one or other of the women’s fallopian tubes so that they fertilize inside the body (invivo).
(iii)Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)– In this method, sperm & eggs are retrieved from both the parents. A single sperm is injected directly into an egg, then the fertilized egg is implanted into the woman’s uterus.
(iv)Artificial insemination – In this technique, the semen is collected either from husband or a healthy donor & is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus of the female (IUI-Intra uterine insemination).
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