In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?
Under the rule of the East India Company, the British territories were divided into administrative units called Presidencies. There were three such Presidencies — Bengal, Madras and Bombay. Each Presidency was ruled by a Governor. The supreme head was the Governor-General.
The principal figure in an Indian district was the Collector whose main job was to collect revenue and taxes, and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas.
From 1772, a new system of justice was established. Under this system, each district had two courts — a criminal court (faujdari adalat) and a civil court (diwani adalat). Maulvis and pandits interpreted Indian laws for the district collectors who presided over civil courts. The criminal courts were still under a qazi and a mufti, but under the supervision of the collectors. A Supreme Court was established under the Regulating Act of 1773, and a court of appeal (Sadar Nizamat Adalat) was also set up at Calcutta.