In what sense has caste become relatively ‘invisible’ for the urban upper castes?
The changes in the caste system benefited the most were urban middle and upper class. Caste status ensured these groups the necessary economic and educational resources and they took full advantage of the opportunities offered by rapid development. Particularly the upper caste elite were able to benefit from subsidised public education, specially professional education in science, technology, medicine and management. They were also able to take advantages of the expansion of state sector jobs in the early decades after independence. Because of this earlier load over the rest of the society in terms of education ensured a privileged status.
For the so called SC and ST and backward castes this change became detrimental. For these the caste became all too visible. They had not inherited educational and social capital and they had to compete with already established upper caste group.They cannot afford to abandon their caste identity.They continue to suffer from discrimination of various kinds.