Mahatma Gandhi’s decision to withdraw Non-Cooperation Movement was criticized from all quarters. In this context, briefly explain the formation and achievement of the Swaraj Party.
After the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhiji, there prevailed calmness in the All India National Congress. Most of the leaders were in jail, and those who were not jailed showed not much of a zeal in pushing Gandhiji’s scheme. They were disappointed. At the same time, leaders like C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru advocated a new line of political activity. They were of the opinion that the congressmen should stand for election to the Legislative Councils. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel opposed this suggestion. He was of the opinion that it would weaken the national zeal. At this stage Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das formed a new group within the Congress and called it the ‘Swaraj Party’. Many other leaders also joined the ‘ Swaraj Party.’
The Swarajist’s Party went ahead with its programme. They took part in the elections held in 1923 and won 43 seats in the Central Legislative Assembly. Their great achievement was that they boldly and fearlessly criticized the wrong policies of the British Government from within. Another great achievement of the Swarajists was that they re-awakened the political consciousness which had been lowered due to the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement. These elected members exerted considerable influences on the Government machinery which became more actively fruitful in some way. Their party also succeeded in getting Vithalbhai Patel elected as President (Speaker) of the Central Legislative Assembly. C. R. Das was elected as Mayor of Calcutta. They continued struggling for self-government from within.