In the post World War I scenario, Italy and Germany experienced the rise of dictatorships. In this context, explain any three circumstances that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy.
(i) Discontentment after the Treaty of Versailles: Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But, by the Treaty of Versailles she could get only Southern Tyrol and Trentino and the coastal regions of Dalmatia. She could not get part of the German and Turkish colonial empire.
(ii) Political instability: Democracy was introduced in Italy for the first time in 1919. Elections failed to give a clear majority to a single party. As a result, Italy was. governed by a series of coalition Governments. The different political parties had different policies and programmes and there was no continuity in their places. They were unable to deal effectively with the problems of unemployment, strikes and riots in 1921-22.
(iii) Rise of charismatic men: Leaders like Mussolini in Italy were influential. His speeches praised the past glories of his country and won the faith of their countrymen. Mussolini was called ‘Duce’ which means the leader.