In Last Two Years, There is a Considerable Reduction in Cancellation of Flights Due to Fog in North India. - Logical Reasoning


Read the following information carefully and choose the most appropriate option:

In the question, two statements are numbered as I and II. There may be a cause and effect relationship between the two statements. The statements may be the effect of the same cause or an independent cause. The statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements and mark your answer as:

Statement I: In last two years, there is a considerable reduction in cancellation of flights due to fog in North India.
Statement II: In last two years, there is a considerable improvement in passenger amenities on all airports of North India.


  • Both statements I and II are effects of independent causes.

  • Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.

  • Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.

  • Both statements I and II are independent causes.



Both statements I and II are effects of independent causes.


According to the statements, there have been cancellations because of the fog while there has been considerable improvement in passenger amenities because of some unstated reasons. So, both statements I and II are effects of independent causes.

Concept: Statement and Arguments (Entrance Exam)
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2015-2016 (May) Set 1


‘A language is most easily leant when it is in tune with the social context. To teach an Indian child in English at the primary stage ... strengthens distinctions of class and status and warps the mind. Failure to resort to regional languages in literacy campaigns also hampers their success'.

Which of the following claims, if true, would weaken the argument in the passage above?

`India is the only country in the world where, in the States which are governed by the Communist party, human rights are fully respected -- and that is only because the Bill of Rights is firmly entrenched in our national Constitution. We can proudly say that our Constitution gave us a flying start and equipped us adequately to meet the challenges of the future.'

Which of the following, if true, would weaken the above argument?

Read the following passage and answer the question that follows:

We are bombarded with misguided advertisements that give advice on healthy-eating, and this has had the effect of making food seem hugely complicated. People are demoralized because they are trying to follow this advice, yet they are getting fatter and fatter. For lots of people, food has become a minefield of dos and don’ts and a relaxed appreciation of the pleasures of eating has got a bit lost along the way. In fact, eating well is simple when you apply a few fundamental principles.

Which of the following proverbs is the closest in meaning to the central argument made in the passage?

Direction : Read the following passage and answer the question that follows:

In a monarchy, the king or queen is the head of state. However, as the UK has a constitutional monarchy, the ability to make and pass legislation belongs to Parliament rather than the Queen. The monarch retains a symbolic role in government. She formally opens Parliament every year, and when the government passes a bill, it cannot become an Act of Parliament until it receives her stamp of approval, a process called Royal Assent. In reality, though, no monarch has refused to give Royal Assent since 1708, when Queen Anne did so only at the behest of ministers. As such, Queen Elizabeth II’s formal duties are largely representational, such as embarking on goodwill visits abroad and hosting foreign heads of state. The monarch’s main role is to serve as a vital part of Britain’s “national identity, unity, and pride”, says the official royal website,

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Choose the best option that correctly classifies the four sentences as a :

F: Fact: if it relates to a known matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true
J: Judgment: If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
I: Inference: If it is a logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. The Cabinet minister definitely took the wrong step in giving the government contract.

B. Under the circumstances, he had many other alternatives.

C. The Prime Minister is embarrassed due to the minister's decision.

D. If he has put the government in jeopardy, the minister must resign.

Select the correct alternative from the given choices.
There are four executives A, B, C and D each working in a different organization amongst Microsoft, Oracle, Infosys, and IBM, not necessarily in the same order. Each of them gives three replies to any question asked, which are alternately true or false, in any order. When asked to mention the name of the executive and the organization that he works for, they gave the following replies:
A: C works with Microsoft.
D works with IBM.
B works with Infosys.

B: A works with IBM.
C works with Infosys.
D works with Oracle.

C: D works with Microsoft.
B works with Oracle.
A works with Infosys.

D: B is not working with Infosys.
A is working with IBM.
C is not working with Microsoft.

A definite arrangement can be obtained from the above information. Answer the questions based on the above data.
Who among the following works with Microsoft?

In the question a statement is given followed by two arguments numbered I and II. Mark the answer as:
Statement: Has the Medical Science really lengthened the span of life?
Argument I: Yes, the new drugs have been able to combat the diseases and increases the span of life.
Argument II: No, the eternal truth that every person's days are numbered cannot be denied.

In the question a statement is given followed by two arguments numbered I and II. Mark the answer as:
Statement: Should income tax be abolished?
Argument I: Yes, it is unnecessary burden on the wage earners.
Argument II: No, it is a good source of revenue.

In the question a statement is given followed by two arguments numbered I and II. Mark the answer as:
Statement: Should there be women chief ministers in states?
Argument I: Yes, only then will the plight of women be removed and their conditions will improve.
Argument II: No: a woman is not capable of ruling a state.

Read the information given and answer the question that follows.
Identify the statement which cannot be accepted.

The passage below is followed by a question based on it. Read the passage choose the best answer to the question.
Beautiful beaches attract people, no doubt about it. Just look at Goa's beautiful beaches, which are among the most overcrowded beaches in the country. Which of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to the one exhibited in the argument above?

Four arguments are given. Each is a set of three sentences. Decide which set has third sentence as logical conclusion of first and second sentences considering the first two to be correct.

I. Some A are B. All B are C. Some A are C.

II. All men are yellow. No yellow are women. No men are women.

III. No ring is chain. Some chains are watches. Some rings are watches.

IV. Every P has a Q. All Q are R. No R has a P.

Identify the alternative which gives true picture of the relation between the arguments listed below:

1. A healthy society is characterized by the overall development of every section. As in the case of human body no organ is less prominent, so also in a society, no section is less important. If any human organ is sick, then the human being is sick. Similarly, if any section of society is sick, then the society is sick.

2. It is fallacious to think that priority to production of agricultural products alone promotes the prosperity of farmers. Prosperity has too many discussions. Transportation, communication, network, sound economic policy, to mention a few are equally important to the economic well-being of fanners. Hence they also deserve consideration.

Read the given argument or statement carefully, making any factual assumptions necessary. Then choose the best answer out of the four choices to the question asked. Note that not all the facts given will be relevant for determining the answer.

‘China has a higher literacy rate than India. This is due to the greater efficiency of the Communist system. Efficiency is sorely lacking in India’s democratic system. Therefore, democracy is the biggest obstacle to India’s achieving 100% literacy.’
Which of the following, if true, would directly undermine the above argument?

Given below is some statement followed by two arguments. Read carefully and decide which of the arguments strongly support the statement.

Statement: Should military training be made compulsory for all college and university students?


(i) Yes, this will develop in them a sense of punctuality and discipline

(ii) No, military training should be given only to those students who are physically fit.

Given below is some statement followed by two arguments. Read carefully and decide which of the arguments strongly support the statement.

Statement: Should students’ union in colleges and universities be abolished?


(i) Yes, it detracts students from academic and career development.

(ii) No, all great leaders have been students’ union leaders.

Given below is some statement followed by two arguments. Read carefully and decide which of the arguments strongly support the statement.

Statement: Should the age of marriage be raised to 25 years for boys and 21 for girls?


(i) No, it is difficult to change a social practice in Indian conditions.

(ii) Yes, by that age people develop a sense of responsibility and also complete their education.

Information that is published is part of the public record.  But information that a reporter collects, and sources that he contacts, must be protected in order for our free press to function free of fear. The above argument is most severely weakened by which one of the following statements? 

It takes a good telescope to see the moons of Neptune. I  can’t see the moons of Neptune with my telescope.  Therefore, I do not have a good telescope. 

Unless they are used as strictly temporary measures, rent control ordinances (municipal regulations placing limits on rent increase) have several negative effects for renters. One of these is that the controls will bring about a shortage of rental units. This disadvantage for renters occurs over the long run, but the advantage-smaller rent increases - occurs immediately. In many municipalities, especially in all those where tenants of rent-control units have a secure hold on political power and can get rent-control ordinances enacted or repealed, it is invariably the desire for short-term gain that guides those tenants in the exercise of that power.   
If the statements above are true, which one of the following can be properly inferred from them? 


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