In India it is difficult to make a clear distinction between the old and new social movements. Discuss.
Old Social Movements
- Class based – united to fight for rights.
- Anti-colonial movements.
- Nationalist movement united people into national e.g., liberation struggle.
- Movement against colonialism.
- Nationalist movement mobilied against rule of foreign power and dominance of foreign capital.
- Mainly concerned with struggles between haves and havenots. Key issue is reorganisation of power relations, i.e. capturing power & transferring it from powerful to powerless, e.g. Workers were mobilised towards capitalists; Women’s struggle against male domination.
- Worked under guidance & organisational framework of political parties, eg. Indian National Congress led the Indian National movement; Communist Party of China led the Chinese Revolution.
- Role of political parties was central and poor people had no other effective means to get their voices heard.
- Concerned about social inequality and unequal distribution of resources -important elements.
New Social Movements
- Decades after Second World War- 1960s and early 1970s
- Take up not just narrow class issues but broad, universal themes, which involved a broad social group irrespective of their class.
- Vietnam were forces led by US bloody conflict.
- Paris – Vibrant student’s movement joined worker’s parties in a series of strikes protesting against the war.
- USA was experiencing a sure of social protests. Civil rights movement was led by Martin Luther King.
- Black powers movement led by Malcolm X.
- Women’s movement, environmental movement.
- No longer focus on redistribution of power rather are more concerned with improving the quality of life. eg. Right to education, clean environment.
- No longer confine themselves within political parties. Instead started joining civil society movements and forming NGOs because they are supposed to be more efficient, less corrupt and less autocratic
- Globalization – reshaping people’s lines, culture, media Firms – transnational. Legal arrangements – international.
Therefore, many new social movements are international in scope.
- Essential elements – Identity politics, cultural anxieties and aspirations.
Is there an error in this question or solution?
Solution In India It is Difficult to Make a Clear Distinction Between the Old and New Social Movements. Discuss. Concept: Types of Social Movements.