Through various national movements, Gandhiji mobilised public support to win freedom for India. In this context, state the following:
Any three causes for Gandhiji to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Causes for Gandhiji to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Khilafat Movement: The treatment meted out by the British government to the Caliph of Turkey disturbed Indian Muslims as he was seen as their religious head. As a result, they started the Khilafat Movement under the leadership of the Ali brothers - Maulana Azad and Hasrat Mohani. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to achieve the much desired Hindu–Muslim unity and made efforts to make common cause with the Khilafat leaders. He was elected as the President of the All-India Khilafat Conference in 1919 and advised the Khilafat Committee to adopt a policy of non-cooperation with
the British government. The Khilafat leaders agreed and campaigned accordingly. Thus, the Khilafat Movement furthered the cause of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Rowlatt Act: The Rowlatt Act of 1919 authorised the British government to arrest and imprison any person without trial and convict him in a court. The authorities could arrest an Indian without a warrant and could conduct his trial in seclusion. Also, the Act implied severe restrictions on the movement of individuals and the suspension of the Right of Habeas Corpus. These were seen as a major breach of trust by Indians who were expecting the British to deliver on their promise of providing self-government. Gandhiji appealed to the Viceroy to withhold his consent to the Act,
but his plea fell on deaf ears.
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy: The Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the subsequent British reaction to it was a watershed event in the Indian freedom struggle. It led to a huge furore all over the country and hardened the Congress resolve to attain self-government.