How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in the many European States after 1815? Explain with examples.
After the year 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalist revolutionaries underground and it is from there that they continued to spread their ideas and liberal values. This was primarily done through the establishment of secret societies. These societies worked tirelessly for the liberty and freedom of individuals and their right to form nation states. They also stood against the monarchical orders established by the Vienna Congress. For example, the Italian revolutionary Guiseppe Mazzini first became a member of the secret society called the Carbonari. Later on he himself established two secret societies – the ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and the ‘Young Europe’ in Berne. Taking inspiration from this, many other secret societies were set up all over Europe in order to train young men to fight against the conservative regimes and spread the society’s propaganda among the larger populace.