How does a restriction nuclease function? Explain
Restriction endonuclease functions by recognising its specific sequence. It binds to the DNA and cuts each to the two strands of the double helix at specific points in their sugar phosphate backbones. These enzymes cut the strand of DNA between the same two bases on the opposite strands leaving a single-stranded portion at their ends. These overhanging stretches are called sticky ends on each strand. The enzyme DNA ligase functions depending on the stickiness of these ends. For example, the restriction endonuclease EcoRI found in the colon bacteria E. coli recognises the base sequence GAATTC in the DNA duplex and cuts its strands between G and A.