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How Does the Gene 'I' Control ABO Blood Groups in Humans ? Write the Effect the Gene Has on the Structure of Red Blood Cells. - Biology

How does the gene 'I' control ABO blood groups in humans ? Write the effect the gene has on the structure of red blood cells.

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Solution

In humans, the ABO blood groups are controlled by a gene called gene ‘I’. It has three alleles, namely IA, IB and i. A person possesses any two of the three alleles. IA and I B dominate over i. But with each other, IA and IB are co-dominant.

Table Showing the Genetic Basis of Blood Groups in Human Population is given as follows

 

Allele from Parent 1

Allele from Parent 2

Genotype of offspring

Blood type of offspring

I A

I A

I A I A

A

I A

I B

I A I B

AB

I A

i

I A i

A

I B

I A

I A I B

AB

I B

I B

I B I B

B

I B

i

I B i

B

i

i

i i

O


These alleles helps to determine the blood group of a person.

The plasma membrane of red blood cells has sugar polymers that protrude out from its surface and the kind of sugar is regulated by the gene 'I' of ABO blood group. The alleles  IA and IB produce A and B types of sugar, while allele i does not produce any sugar.

Concept: Deviations from Mendelism - Incomplete Dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple Alleles and Inheritance of Blood Groups, Pleiotropy
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