How do Mendel's experiment show that traits are inherited independently? - Science


How do Mendel's experiment show that traits are inherited independently?


Solution 1

Mendel carried out dihybrid crosses by crossing two pea plants differing in contrasting traits of two characters. For example, he crossed a pea plant having yellow colour and round seed characters with another pea plant bearing green colour and wrinkled seed characters. In the F2 generation, he obtained pea plants with two parental and two recombinant phenotypes as yellow round and green wrinkled (parental) and yellow wrinkled and green round (recombinant). This indicated that traits separated from their original parental combinations and got inherited independently.

Solution 2

Mendel crossed pure breeding tall plants having round seeds with pure breeding short plants having wrinkled seeds. The plants of F1generation were all tall with round seeds indicating that the traits of tallness and round seeds were dominant. Self breeding of F1yielded plants with characters of 9 tall round seeded, 3 tall wrinkled seeded , 3 short round seeded and one short wrinkled seeded. Tall wrinkled seeded and short round seeded plants are new combinations which can develop only when the traits are inherited independently.

Concept: Heredity
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Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution - Intext Questions [Page 147]

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In one of his experiments with pea plants, Mendel observed that when a pure tall pea plant is crossed with a pure dwarf pea plant in the first generation, F1, only tall plants appear.

(a) What happens to the traits of the dwarf plants in this case?

(b) When the F1-​generation plants were self-fertilised, he observed that in the plants of the second generation, F2, both tall plants and dwarf plants were present. Why it happened? Explain briefly.

Define heredity.

Mendel crossed tall pea plants with dwarf pea plants in his experiment. Write his observations giving reason on the F1 and F2 generations.

Name the scientist who gave the laws of inheritance.

How do Mendel's experiments show that traits are inherited independently?

A cross between a tall plant (TT) and short plant (tt) resulted in progeny that were all tall plants because :
(a) tallness is the dominant trait
(b) shortness is the dominant trait
(c) tallness is the recessive trait
(d) height of plant is not governed by gene T or t

Pure-bred pea plants A are crossed with pure-bred pea plants B. It is found that the plants which look like A do not appear in F1 generation but re-emerge in F2 generation. Which of the plants A and B are : (i) tall, and (ii) dwarf? Give reason for your answer.


Pure-bred tall pea plants are first crossed with pure-bred dwarf pea plants. The pea plants obtained in F1generation are then cross-bred to produce F2 generation of pea plants.
(a) What do the plants of F1 generation look like?
(b) What is the ratio of tall plants to dwarf plants in F2 generation?
(c) Which type of plants were missing in F1 generation but reappeared in F2 generation?


What are the possible blood groups likely to be inherited by children born to a group A mother and a group B father? Explain your reasoning.


The term 'father of genetics' is used for the scientist :
(a) Morgan
(b) Mendel
(c) Darwin
(d) Marie Curie

Explain the mechanism of hereditary changes.

Hereditary characters are transferred from parents to offspring by ______ hence they are said to be structural and functional units of heredity.

Define Heredity. Give two examples.

Who is the pioneer of modern genetics?

Write advantages of science of heredity.

____________ refers to the transmission of genetic information from parental generation to next generation.

In the following Question, the Assertion and Reason have been put forward. Read the statements carefully and choose the correct alternative from the following:

Assertion: When pure breed tall plants are crossed with pure breed short plants, all the plants in F1 progeny are tall. When the tall plants of F1 progeny are crossed, short plants re-appear in F2 progeny.

Reason: Traits are independently inherited.

What are the components of the DNA molecule?


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