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How do m-RNA, t-RNA and ribosomes help in the process of translation? - Biology

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How do m-RNA, t-RNA and ribosomes help in the process of translation?

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Solution

Role of m-RNA, t-RNA and ribosomes in protein synthesis:
(i) m-RNA: The messenger RNA brings coded information from DNA and takes part in its translation by bringing amino acids in a particular sequence during the synthesis of a polypeptide. The same m-RNA can be reused many times.
(ii) t-RNA: They transfer RNAs which pick up particular amino acids in the process called charging, and they carry them to m-RNA over particular codons corresponding to their anticodons. Each t-RNA has an area for coming in contact with ribosome and the enzyme amino acyl tRNA synthetase.
(iii) Ribosomes: Ribosomes are protein factories. Each ribosome has two subunits— smaller and larger subunits. The larger subunit has a groove for pushing out the newly formed polypeptide and for protecting the same from cellular enzymes. The smaller subunit fits like a cap over the larger one and leaves a tunnel for m-RNA. The smaller subunit has a point for recognising m-RNA and binding area for initiation factors.

Concept: Protein synthesis - Transcription - Introduction of Transcription
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