Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationSSLC (English Medium) Class 9th
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How did the British colonise South Africa? Explain the Boer War. - Social Science

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Answer in Brief

How did the British colonise South Africa? Explain the Boer War.

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Solution

In South Africa, the British possessed Natal, Cape Colony, while the Dutch (locally known as the Boers) held the states of the Transvaal and Orange Free State. In 1886 the discovery of gold in the Transvaal led to a large number of British miners settling in and around Johannesburg. The Boers feared and hated the miners whom they called Uitlanders (foreigners). In 1890, Cecil Rhodes, the Prime Minister of Cape Colony, encouraged British expansion to the north of the Transvaal. This worsened the relations between the Boers and the British. Denied their political rights the British miners revolted. This led to the Boer War which lasted three years (1899-1902).

In the end, the Boer army was defeated and Pretoria was occupied. The Boers suffered greatly in the war. Their farms and crops were destroyed and Boer women and children were confined to internment camps. The shortage of food, beds, medical and sanitary facilities caused the death of 26,000 people. The British annexed the two Boer states but promised self-government in due course. Boer states were given full responsible government in 1907. After discussions over the years, the four states finally decided to form a union, and South Africa as a state was born in 1909.

Concept: Colonisation of Africa
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