What do you understand by inert pair effect
Inert pair effect
As one moves down the group, the tendency of s-block electrons to participate in chemical bonding decreases. This effect is known as inert pair effect. In case of group 13 elements, the electronic configuration is ns2 np1 and their group valency is +3. However, on moving down the group, the +1 oxidation state becomes more stable. This happens because of the poor shielding of the ns2 electrons by the d- and f- electrons. As a result of the poor shielding, the ns2 electrons are held tightly by the nucleus and so, they cannot participate in chemical bonding.
Inert pair effect: The pair of electron in the valence shell does not take part in bond formation is called inert pair effect.