Give the composition, causes, and effects of acid rain.
When oxides of sulphur and nitrogen of air come in contact with water or rain, they form corresponding acids and constitute acid rain.
Causes of acid rain:
The cause of acid rain is the formation of mineral acids such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and carbonic acid.
Effects of acid rain:
- Acid rain removes or leaches away elements in soil such as calcium and potassium, and soil thus loses its fertility. In this way, it damages forests.
- It makes water in lakes and rivers acidic and may no longer support aquatic life.
- Acid rain causes extensive damage to buildings and monuments or marble, limestone, slate, and mortar. These materials become pitted and weakened mechanically. The Taj Mahal is one such example.
CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
CaCO3 + 2HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O