Give the importance of fossil in support of organic evolution - Biology


Give the importance of fossil in support of organic evolution



a. Fossils are defined as the dead remains of plants and animals that lived in the past in various geological layers. 
b. Unlike the evidences from other branches of biology, evidence from fossils are sound, direct and reliable. 
c. Fossils are described as the true witnesses or documents of evolution.
d. The development in the field of Geology reveals that the primitive forms of organisms occupy the lower layers and the advanced forms occupy the upper layers of the earth during fossilization.

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2012-2013 (October)



Mammals : _________ : : Amphibia : Fishes

State the connecting links between Peripatus with Annelida and Arthopoda.

Give two examples of vestigial organs  in human beings and plants.

Differentiate between homology and analogy. Give one example of each.

(a) Select the analogous structures from the combination given below:

(i) Forelimbs of whales and bats

(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals

(iii) Tuber of sweet potato and potato

(iv) Tuber of Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita

(b) State the kind of evolution they represent

Study the following statements:-

I. Wings of birds and wings of bats are homologous organs.

II. Wings of birds and wings of insects are modified forelimbs.

III. Wings of birds and wings of insects are analogous organs.

IV. Wings of birds and forelimbs of horse are homologous organs.

The correct statements are

(A) I and II

(B) II and III

(C) III and IV

(D) I and IV

Which of the following pairs of two vegetables represent the correct homologous structures?

(A) Sweet potato and potato

(B) Sweet potato and tomato

(C) Carrot and potato

(D) Radish and carrot

With the help of any two suitable examples explain the effect of anthropogenic actions on organic evolution.

Write the similarity between the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bat. What do you infer from the above with reference to evolution? 

Which of the following is a correct set of homologous organs?

(a) Forelimbs of frog, bird and lizard

(b) Spine of cactus and thorn of bougainvillea

(c) Wings of bat and wings of butterfly

(d) Wings of a bird and wings of a bat

Four students A, B, C and D reported the following set of organs to be homologous. Who is correct ?

(A) Wings of a bat and a butterfly

(B) Wings of a pigeon and a bat

(C) Wings of a pigeon and a butterfly

(D) Forelimbs of cow, a duck and a lizard

Four students P, Q, R and S differently reported the following set of organs to be analogous :

P. Forelimb of a frog and forelimb of a lizard

Q. Forelimb of a bird and forelimb of a human

R. Wings of a parrot and wings of a butterfly

S. Wings of a bird and wings of a bat

The two students who have reported correctly are :

(A) P and Q

(B) Q and R

(C) R and S

(D) P and S

Find out from newspapers and popular science articles any new fossil discoveries or controversies about evolution.

Try to trace the various components of human evolution (hint: brain size and function, skeletal structure, dietary preference, etc.)

Name the scientists who Discovered the fossil of Australopithecus

Explain the evolution of giraffe's neck according to Lamarck's theory of evolution.

Name any two temporary embryonic structures in vertebrates which provide evidence for evolution.

What are homologous organs?

How do homologous organs help in providing evidence for organic evolution?

Some dinosaurs had feathers although they could not fly birds have feathers that help them to fly. In the context of evolution, this means that ______

The presence of which of the following types of organs in two animals indicates that they are not derived from a common ancestor?
(a) homologous organs
(b) excretory organs
(c) analogous organs
(d) reproductive organs

One pair of organs in the following animals are not homologous. This is :
(a) forelimbs in humans and lizard
(b) forelimbs in lizard and frog
(c) wings in butterfly and bat
(d) wings in bat and bird

Identify the following pairs as homologous and analogous organs:
(i) Sweet potato and potato
(ii) Eye of octopus and eye of mammals
(iii) Thorns of Bougainvillaea and tendrils of Cucurbits
(iv) Fore limbs of bat and whale

What do we call the degenerated or partially developed useless organs in living organisms? Enlist such organs in human body? How the same organs are useful in other animals?

Vestigial organ ______ present in human body is proof of evolution.

Write short notes based upon the information known to you.


Write the names of those animals in whom the human body organs are functioning.

Observe the picture and answer the following questions.
A) Which evidence of evolution is shown in the picture?
B) What can be proven with this proof?
C) Give one more example of evidence of evolution

The most common types of fossils are ------------------------. 

Draw a labelled diagram of T.S. of a leaf showing Kranz anatomy. 

What do you mean by vestigial structures? Name four vestigial organs found in man.

Choose the correct option of the following question:

Wings of Insect and Birds are examples of :

Explain any three molecular (genetic) evidences in favour of organic evolution.

Define fossils. 

Differentiate between connecting links and the missing links.

Define phylogeny.

Very short answer question.

What are homologous organs?

Short answer question.

Give the significance of fossils.

Long answer question.

Would you consider wings of butterfly and bat as homologous or analogous and why?

_____________ is a vestigial organ in human beings.

Find an odd one out.

Find an odd one out.

Find an odd one out.

I am a connecting link between reptiles and mammals. Who am I?

The decaying process of C-14 occurs continuously in dead organisms only.

Give scientific reason.

Peripatus is said to be the connecting link between Annelida and Arthropoda.

Give scientific reason.

Duck-billed platypus shows relationship with mammals.

Write a short note:

Embryological evidences

Enlist the evidences of evolution.

What is carbon dating?

Observe the given images and answer the following questions.

  1. Which evolutionary evidence does it indicate?
  2. What does it prove?
  3. State another example of evolutionary evidence.

Which evidence of evolution is shown in the given picture? Explain the importance of this evidence.

Write the answers to the questions by observing the figure below.

(a) (b) (c)
  1. Write the name of the animal ‘(a)’ in the figure.
  2. Write the name of the animal ‘(b)’ in the figure.
  3. Write the name of the animal ‘(c)’ in the figure.
  4. Which evolutionary evidence is illustrated by this figure?
  5. Write the definition of that evidence for evolution.

Biogenetic law states that ______.

The degenerated and non-functional organs found in an organism are called ______.

A human hand, a front leg of a cat, a front flipper of a whale and a bat’s wing look dissimilar and adapted for different functions. What is the name given to these organs?

How do you differentiate homologous organs from analogous organs?

Select vestigial organs from the following.

Homologous organs and vestigial organs are examples of ______ type of evidence in evolution.

Select the correct statement.

Select the CORRECT match.

Select the CORRECT set of homologous organs.

Which of these is not a vestigial organ in human beings?

The fossil remains of Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between ______ 

Define vestigial organs

Homologous organs are:

Cucurbits do not develop thick and woody stem as they are:

Tendons and ligaments are examples of ______.

Palaeontological evidence for evolution refers to the ______.

Basic principles of embryonic development were pronounced by:

Study of fossils is ______.

Evolutionary convergence is the development of:

The process of mating of individuals, which are more closing related than the average of the population to which they belong is called ______.

The presence of gill slits, in the embryos of all vertebrates, supports the theory of ______.

Which is not a vestigial organ in a man?

Flippers of Penguins and Dolphins are examples of: 

The study of fossil evidence of evolution is called ______

Organs having similar functions but different origin and development are known as:

Animal husbandry and plant breeding programmes are the examples of ______.

Appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an example of ______.

Give an example for convergent evolution and identify the features towards which they are converging.

What is the function of the appendix of our digestive system?

Find odd one out:

As shown in figure below some organisms that share a common ancestor have features that have different functions, but similar structures.

These are known as ______. Give example.

Write down the difference between homologous and analogous organs.

Find the odd one out:

Explain natural selection with the example of industrial melanism.

Write avian characters of Archaeopteryx.

Write a note on the significance of Palaeontology.

Industrial melanism was highlighted by ______.

Complete the following conceptual picture:

Pick the odd man out:

Write names of some vestigial organs in the human body.


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