Give elaborate answer to the following.
Describe any three types of tourism.
Explain any four types of tourism with examples.
Tourism can be defined as travelling to visit places in distant regions for a specific purpose. The types of tourism are as follows:
- Local and Interstate Tourism
- Local and Interstate tourism involves residents of one country travelling only within that country.
- This kind of tourism is not very overwhelming because it is within one’s own country.
- Also, it does not cause difficulties with language, procuring currency and documents.
- Moreover, this kind of tourism can be planned at a time suitable to the individual.
- International Tourism
- International tourism is an important type of tourism. It refers to tourism that crosses national borders.
- Due to the availability of railway, marine and air transport, it has become easier to travel abroad. There is a trans-European railway route. Marine transport has linked the coastal regions and aviation has brought the entire world closer.
- Moreover, due to the economic liberalisation policy of the Indian government (1991), the number of people travelling back and forth from India has increased greatly. People nowadays travel for studies, relaxation, sightseeing, shooting of films, professional assignments like meetings, agreements, etc.
- Various official documents are to be obtained for travelling abroad, for example - a passport, visa etc.
- Historical Tourism
- Historical tourism refers to a kind of tourism, where the tour focuses on the history; history of some place, people, things or events. It helps people satisfy their interest in history.
- In India, tours are arranged to different historical places and important historical sites such as forts in Rajasthan, ashrams of Mahatma Gandhi and Acharya Vinoba Bhave, important places related to the Indian War of Independence (1857), etc.
- Gopal Neelkanth Dandekar, a renowned Marathi writer, used to arrange hiking tours to forts in Maharashtra, to explore the sights closely linked to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his achievements.
- Geographic Tourism
- Geographic tourism involves visiting places to observe the special geographical features of a region.
- In order to satisfy this curiosity, tourists visit various natural & animal sanctuaries, beaches and unique geographical wonders like the Crater lake at Lonar & Ranjan Khalge (naturally carved out cavities in rocks) at Nighoj in Maharashtra.
- Health Tourism
- Health Tourism involves travelling for the purpose of receiving medical treatment or improving health or fitness.
- In India, the health services and facilities available are cheaper compared to other countries. Even the standard of these facilities is good, therefore, people from western countries undertake this type of tourism.
- Besides, tourists from countries with cold climates visit India to get ample sunlight.
- Learning Yoga and undertaking ayurvedic therapies are some other reasons for this type of tourism.
- Today Agro-tourism, also known as Agri-tourism, is rapidly developing.
- It is specially meant for the urban population who have very little exposure to rural life and agriculture.
- Indian farmers, nowadays, visit distant regions like agricultural research centres, agricultural-universities.
- Farmers also visit countries like Israel where experimentation in advanced technology of agriculture is carried out.
- Sports Tourism
- Sports Tourism, developed in the 20th century, refers to travel which involves attending a sporting event.
- Various sports events are organised at the international level, national level and state levels.
- Olympics, Wimbledon, World Chess Championship matches and International Cricket Tournaments etc., are some examples of sports events organised at the international level; an event like the Himalayan Car Rally is organised at the national level and the Maharashtra Kesari Wrestling competitions, etc; are organised at the state level.
- Tourism based on Special Events
- Travelling to and staying in places outside the usual environment for a specific purpose and for a fixed period of time is known as ‘tourism’.
- People who love to travel, look for special reasons to go on a tour and in the 21st century, it has become common to organise such events.
- Film festivals, various types of seminars and conferences, international book exhibitions, library festivals, etc., are examples of special events. People from different regions come to attend these events.
- For instance, every year many literature enthusiasts from Maharashtra come to attend the Akhil Bhartiya Marathi Sammelan [Pan India Literary Convention] which is held annually in different places in India.
- Religious Tourism
- People belonging to various castes, religions, creeds, etc., visit religious places to worship the different gods and goddesses, and saints or to see the art, culture, traditions and architecture.
- Nowadays, people of various religious communities are spread globally. However, they remain united because of their mythological traditions and the places associated with those traditions.
- This creates a desire to travel to those places and it gives rise to religious tourism. d. Religious tourism fosters peace, unity and socio-cultural harmony among people.
- In order to provide good amenities on the pilgrim routes like Chardham Yatras and Bara Jyotirlingas, Ahilyabai Holkar undertook the construction by using her personal funds.
Conclusion: Hence, in this way tourism not only boosts the spirit of an individual but also enhances the economy of the nation.
Concept: Types of Tourism
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