Give a Chemical Test to Distinguish Between Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. - Science


Give a chemical test to distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.



Chemical test:- Bromine water test, if unsaturated hydrocarbons are added to it then the solution turns colourless. The unsaturated hydrocarbon decolourise bromine water. Whereas no change takes place to the solution when saturated hydrocarbons are added to bromine water.

Physical test:- Distinction between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons: Saturated hydrocarbons burn in the air with clear (blue) flame, whereas burning of unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) gives sooty (yellowish) flame. Saturated hydrocarbons contain less percentage of carbon as compared to unsaturated hydrocarbons; therefore, they get completely oxidised by the oxygen present in the air on burning. Unsaturated hydrocarbons require lot of oxygen for complete oxidation whose demand is not fulfilled by air. Due to this reason, unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame. The sooty flame contains partially burnt carbon in the form of soot.

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2015-2016 (March) Delhi Set 1

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Give any two differences between alkanes and alkenes.

‘A’ is an element having four electrons in its outermost orbit. An allotropes ‘B’ of this element is used as a dry lubricant in machinery and in pencil leads. So:
i. Write the name of element ‘A’ and its allotropes.
ii. State whether ‘B’ is a good conductor or non-conductor of electricity?

Define Saturated hydrocarbon.

Define Unsaturated hydrocarbon.

Define Catenation.

What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us?

Draw the electron dot structures for H2S.

Draw the electron dot structures for  F2

Why are certain compounds called hydrocarbons? Write the general formula for homologous series of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes and also draw the structure of the first member of each series. Write the name of the reaction that converts alkenes into alkanes and also write a chemical equation to show the necessary conditions for the reaction to occur.

Write a short note on Catenation.

Write the electron-dot structures for ethene.

What are hydrocarbons? Write the general formula of (i) saturated hydrocarbons, and (ii) unsaturated hydrocarbons and draw the structure of one hydrocarbon of each type. How can an unsaturated hydrocarbon be made saturated?

Fill in the blanks and rewrite the completed statements:

The organic compounds having double or triple bond in them are termed as _________________   _________________.

Explain the following reaction with balanced chemical equation:
Calcium reacts with water. 

Which among the following are unsaturated hydrocarbons?

  1. \[\ce{H3C - CH2 - CH2 - CH3}\]
  2. \[\ce{H3C - C ≡ C - CH3}\]
  3. \[\begin{array}{cc}
    \ce{H3C - CH - CH3}\\
  4. \[\begin{array}{cc}
    \ce{H3C - C = CH2}\\

Name the functional groups present in the following compounds

  1. CH3 CO CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
  2. CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH
  3. CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CHO
  4. CH3 CH2 OH

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain multiple bonds between the two C-atoms and show addition reactions. Give the test to distinguish ethane from ethene.

  1. Write the name and draw the structure of a saturated hydrocarbon with four carbon atoms.
  2. Write the number of single covalent bonds present in this compound.


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