Give a brief account of the post-war struggle between the KMT and the CCP.
The end of the World War-II did not mark the end of conflict in China. However, the defeat of Japan sparked a race between the KMT and CCP to regulate vital resources and population centres in Northern China and Manchuria.
The CCP and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA; the name by which communist forces were now known) conquered mainland China and on October 1st, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was established, with its capital at Beijing (the city’s former name restored). The factors that brought this about were complex and subjected to widely varying interpretations, but the basic fact remained a communist military triumph growing out of a profound and popularly based revolution.
The process may be perceived in three phases: (1) from August 1945 to the end of
1946, the Nationalists and Communists raced to take over Japanese-held territories, built up their forces, and fought many limited engagements while still conducting negotiations for a peaceful settlement; (2) during 1947 and the first half of 1948, after initial Nationalist success, the strategic balance turned in favour of the Communists; and (3) the communists won a series of smashing victories beginning in the latter part of 1948 that led to the establishment of the People’s Republic.